Sellers of Beauty
Until the early 1900s, few American women used cosmetics daily. Consumption increased as women had more disposable income, the freedom to spend it, and examples of Hollywood actresses to follow. In the 1800s, most cosmetics and fragrances came from France, but now American entrepreneurs capitalized on a growing U.S. market.
As businesses grew more complex, a new breed of professionals—industrial managers and consultants—tried to use scientific principles to improve the organization and efficiency of both factory and office.