On some adders, numbers were represented along an arc of a circle. People used their fingers or a stylus to enter numbers. On a few of these instruments, a mechanism allowed one to carry a single digit. These objects are described here as adders with carry. They blur the line between adders and adding machines.
"Adders - Circular Adders" showing 1 items.
- This patent model for an adder has three concentric, linked discs that revolve on a central pivot. The bottom disc is numbered from 1 to 99 clockwise around its toothed edge, to represent hundreds and thousands. Above it is a smaller disc, also with teeth around the edge, numbered from 00 to 99 clockwise to represent units and tens. A window in the third, top, largest disc shows the result on the dials below. The largest disc is numbered from 1 to 100 around the edge. Atop this disc is a rotating arm. Moving the arm counterclockwise advances the inner disc proportionally, allowing one to enter numbers up to 99.
- A lever extends from the side of the disc and bends over the top. If the arm rotates around a full 100 units, it pushes this lever, causing a carry. The lever also may be used to zero the hundreds and thousands digits. See U.S. patent 69,647 for “Improvement in Tallying Instrument.” According to the patent, the invention “relates to a new and improved method of registering or tallying the quantity of lumber measured, or keeping account of sums of money paid out or received . . .”
- There was a George Farmer (born about 1831 in England, died 1880 in Saginaw, Michigan) who worked as a miller and shingle maker in Illinois and in Michigan. He is listed in the 1860 U.S. Census as living in Elmira in Stark County, Illinois, working as a miller. That same year he received a patent on August 21for an improvement in harvesters (#29685). By 1870, he was living in Saginaw, Michigan, still working as a miller. In the 1880 Census he is listed as a shingle manufacturer. He and his son, Albion, ran a shingle-making business in Saginaw under the name of George Farmer & Son. It is listed in the 1878 city directory for the town. The George Farmer who received the patent for this adder was a resident of Flint, which is near Saginaw.
- Reference: George Farmer, “Improvement in Tallying Instrument,” U.S. Patent 69,647, granted October 8, 1867.
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- Farmer, George
- Farmer, George
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- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center