Arithmetic Teaching Apparatus -- Blocks and Bars

Blocks and Bars

A picture of the Arithmetic School, a toy by Playskool.

In the early twentieth century, the Italian educator Maria Montessori introduced a variety of apparatus for introducing young children to ideas about numbers and arithmetic.  In the mid-twentieth century, the German-born American teacher Catherine Stern and the Belgian educator Georges Cuisenaire developed systems of teaching about numbers and arithmetic with wooden blocks.