Arithmetic Teaching Apparatus
Resources

A picture of the Arithmetic School, a toy by Playskool.

Resources

In addition to materials from the mathematics collections shown here, the Division of Home and Community at the National Museum of American History has a rich array of arithmetic textbooks and related teaching apparatus. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries also have texts, as well as trade literature published by dealers in educational materials.

Published sources include:

P. A. Kidwell, A. Ackerberg-Hastings and David Lindsay-Roberts, Tools of American Mathematics Teaching, 1800-2000, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

W. S. Monroe, Development of Arithmetic as a School Subject, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1917.

D. L.  Roberts, American Mathematicians as Educators, 1893-1923: Historical Roots of the "Math Wars," Boston: Docent Press, 2012.