Arithmetic Teaching Apparatus
From Teaching Machines to Electronic Devices

A picture of the Arithmetic School, a toy by Playskool.

In the early 1950s, Harvard psychologist and new father B. F. Skinner turned his attention to arithmetic teaching. He argued that such instruction could be carried out by machine, and designed apparatus for that purpose. With the advent of inexpensive electronic equipment, a variety of other instruments were put to use in arithmetic instruction.