Arithmetic Teaching ApparatusTests
Throughout most of the nineteenth century, teachers tested the progress of students with oral examinations, often held at the blackboard. By the end of the century, more formal written examinations were used in some states to test graduates of academies in high schools and to accredit teachers. A few universities began to offer advanced degrees in education, and faculty there reflected on the history of mathematics education in this country.
At the same time, as the number of students attending school expanded, as high schools began to offer vocational training, and as manufacturing became more efficient, several authors worried about maximizing the efficiency of schools. A variety of standardized examinations were introduced to predict the performance of students, to point up areas where they needed work, and to evaluate school systems.
"Arithmetic Teaching Apparatus - Tests" showing 1 items.
- By the 1920s, mathematics educators increasingly turned to standardized tests as a way to measure what students knew, to predict what they could learn, and to determine where they had difficulties. This test had sections on addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The final two sections were on fractions, decimals, and percentages; and on a combination of problems. The authors were Raleigh Schorling (1887–1950), John R. Clark (1887–1986), and Mary A. Potter (1889–1993?). World Book Company published the four page leaflet in 1928. Versions of the test would be published for decades.
- By 1926, when the test was first published, Schorling and Clark had obtained their PhDs from Teacher’s College of Columbia University. After earning his doctorate, Clark headed the mathematics department of the Chicago State Teacher’s College, and then in 1920 returned to teach in the Department of Mathematics Education at Teacher’s College. He remained there until his retirement in 1952.
- Schorling taught at the Lincoln School of Teacher’s College. He left in 1923 to become the first principal of the University High School at the University of Michigan, and completed his Teacher’s College doctorate in 1924. He remained at Ann Arbor for the rest of his career, serving as well as a professor of education at the university. Mary Potter obtained her undergraduate degree from Lawrence College in Appleton, Wisconsin, in 1913. She taught in several Wisconsin school districts, settling in Racine by 1920 and living there the rest of her working life.
- At the Lincoln School, Schorling and Clark worked to reform arithmetic education by emphasizing the affairs of daily life. Their efforts led them to author new textbooks as well as new tests. Schorling, Clark, and Potter were all active in the establishment of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics in 1920.
- Currently not on view
- date made
- Schorling, Raleigh
- Clark, John R.
- Potter, Mary A.
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- catalog number
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- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center