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Calculating MachinesDirect Multiplication Calculating Machines

The first calculating machines multiplied by repeated addition. To multiple by tens, hundreds, or larger units, one shifted the carriage. From the 1870s, a few inventors proposed machines that could multiply directly – albeit by a single digit at a time. The Frenchman Léon Bollée exhibited such a machine at a world’s fair held in Paris in 1889. Not long thereafter the American George Grant and the Swiss inventor Otto Steiger invented direct multiplication machines. Steiger’s machine would sell successfully as the Millionaire in both Europe and the United States. In the 1930s, Swedish-born inventor Carl Friden introduced a calculating machine on which all of the digits of the multiplier could be entered at once. Automatic multiplication – and automatic division – came to be widely available on calculating machines in the 1950s.

"Calculating Machines - Direct Multiplication Calculating Machines" showing 2 items.

## Barbour Calculating Machine Model

- Description
- In the late 19th century, several inventors turned their attention to designing better machines for doing arithmetic. This model calculating machine, patented by Edmund D. Barbour of Boston, was intended to multiply a number by a digit directly, rather than requiring repeated addition. Barbour submitted the model to the U.S. Patent Office, and received a patent for the invention on August 13, 1872.

- This machine consists of eight wooden cylinders that rotate on a crosswise shaft inside a wooden box. Each cylinder has around its edge 90 rows of cog-teeth. Each set of nine cog-teeth represents the multiples of a digit (zero multiples correspond to blank spaces). These cog-teeth have not actually been constructed. They are shown as pen marks on a slip of paper that extends around the first cylinder.

- The machine is set to a given multiplier by rotating all the cylinders with a knob at one end of the machine. This knob is missing. The first cylinder has on its left side a wooden spur gear with 90 teeth The other cylinders would have such gears, but they are uncut. Pulling out a wooden toothed rack below the gear advances it one-ninetieth of a revolution for each unit on the rack. Hence one can set a multiplicand.

- A movable carriage of brass on the top of the machine is supposed to be linked to the cylinders, so that when the carriage is pulled one unit to the right, the recording wheels advance in proportion to the figure represented on the edge of the cylinders. At present, the cylinders are not linked to the sliding carriage. Ther object has no maker’s marks. No successful product emerged directly from Barbour’s patents.

- Compare MA*309172, MA*309173, and MA*318168.

- The Edmund D. Barbour who took out this patent was probably Edmund Dana Barbour (1841–1925), a Boston native who reportedly gained a fortune in the China trade, before returning to Boston in 1871, not long before taking out this patent. Barbour went on to take out two further patents for calculating machines, to invest successfully in the Bell Telephone Company, to carry out extensive genealogical research, and to leave most of his fortune in bequests to Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Radcliffe College.

- References:

- Edmund Barbour, "Improvement in Calculating-Machines," U.S. Patent 130404, August 13, 1872.

- J. A. V. Turck,
*Origin of Modern Calculating Machines*, Chicago: Western Society of Engineers, 1921, pp. 180–187.

- “Sharon’s Rich Men,”
*Boston Daily Globe*, February 20, 1888, p. 6.

- “Fund for Three Local Colleges: Edmund D Barbour’s Will Gives Each $20,000 a Year,”
*Boston Daily Globe*, March 13, 1925.

- J. Gardner Bartlett, “Edmund Dana Barbour,”
*The New England Historical and Genealogical Register*, vol. 79, October 1925, pp. 339–344.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1872

- patentee
- Barbour, Edmund D.

- maker
- Barbour, Edmund D.

- ID Number
- MA*309172

- accession number
- 89797

- catalog number
- 309172

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Verea Calculating Machine Model

- Description
- In 1878 Ramon Verea, a Spanish-born newspaper publisher in New York City, sent the U.S. Patent Office this model of a calculating machine he had invented. It was one of the first calculating machines that could multiply a number by a digit directly, rather than be repeated addition. The machine did not become a commercial product.

- The lever-set machine has flat brass sides and is open at the front, bottom and back to reveal the mechanism. At the front are two ten-sided brass prisms that are mounted vertically. Each of the sides of the each prism has two columns of holes, with ten holes in a column. The holes come in ten sizes, with the largest and deepest representing 0, and the smallest and shallowest, 9. The holes represent multiples of a given digit.

- Above the prisms are two knobs that move in slots in the flat top of the machine. Pulling forward a knob rotates the cylinder below, so that the side facing the back of the machine has holes representing multiples of the digit desired. Behind this mechanism is a row of tapered pins. Pulling a lever at the back of the machine raises or lowers these pins in order to set the multiplier. Turning a crank on the right side moves the pins up to the faces of the prisms and, where there are holes in the prism, allows the pins to enter to a certain depth.

- Once the surface of a prism touched a pin, it pushed the pin, and a rack behind the pin, backward. Pins entering shallow holes reach the prism quickly and have a correspondingly greater effect on the rack. Pinions linked to the racks rotate correspondingly, rotating the result wheels at the back of the machine, with carrying occurring as required. Further turning of the crank restores the prisms, racks, and pins to their original position.

- A mark on the top front of the machine reads: R. VEREA (/) NEW YORK.

- The model was displayed at the Museums of the Peaceful Arts in New York City. When that museum closed, it was given to the Smithsonian Institution by L. Leland Locke.

- References:

- R. Verea, “Improvement in Calculating Machines,” U.S. Patent 207918, September 10, 1878.

- L. Leland Locke, “The First Direct-Multiplication Machine,”
*Typewriter Topics*, November, 1926, pp. 16 and 18.

- P. Kidwell, “Ideology and Invention: The Calculating Machine of Ramon Verea,”
*Rittenhouse*, vol. 9, 1995, pp. 33–41.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1878

- date patented
- 1878

- patentee
- Verea, Ramon

- maker
- Verea, Ramon

- ID Number
- MA*311942

- catalog number
- 311942

- accession number
- 155183

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center