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Calculating MachinesDirect Multiplication Calculating Machines

The first calculating machines multiplied by repeated addition. To multiple by tens, hundreds, or larger units, one shifted the carriage. From the 1870s, a few inventors proposed machines that could multiply directly – albeit by a single digit at a time. The Frenchman Léon Bollée exhibited such a machine at a world’s fair held in Paris in 1889. Not long thereafter the American George Grant and the Swiss inventor Otto Steiger invented direct multiplication machines. Steiger’s machine would sell successfully as the Millionaire in both Europe and the United States. In the 1930s, Swedish-born inventor Carl Friden introduced a calculating machine on which all of the digits of the multiplier could be entered at once. Automatic multiplication – and automatic division – came to be widely available on calculating machines in the 1950s.

"Calculating Machines - Direct Multiplication Calculating Machines" showing 3 items.

## Grant Grasshopper Calculating Machine

- Description
- This is the form of calculating machine exhibited by George B. Grant at the Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893. It is a lever-set non-printing manually operated connection pawl machine. The form is called Grant’s grasshopper model because of its appearance.

- The machine has an open iron frame painted black, with steel and brass parts and paper labels. Five sliding pins at the front of the machine are used to set numbers on racks beneath. Next to each pin is a thin strip of paper with the digits from 0 to 9 printed on it. The digits increase as one goes toward the back of the machine. Each strip also has complementary digits in smaller type, for use in subtraction and division. Moving back a pin drives back a toothed rack.

- Behind the racks is a movable carriage with 11 gears on it. A paper strip with digits on it is next to each gear. Turning a crank at the front right of the machine moves the racks back to engage the gears, turning each one of them in proportion to the number set. When the adding frame reaches the end of its backward movement, a cam set on the crank shaft at the front raises all the register gears a little so that the gears are disengaged from the racks and not moved in the return motion. One tooth on each gear extends so that when the gear has made a complete rotation, it engages one of the carry teeth arranged on a spiral shaft above the carriage. As the adding racks return to position, the shaft revolves and the carry tooth pushes the next gear up by one, resulting in a carry. The result appears o the paper strips between the gears on the carriage.

- Releasing the carriage and turning it one revolution zeros the result shaft.

- A slip of paper to the right of the number levers reads: GEORGE B. GRANT, (/) LEXINGTON, MASS. It also reads: 1.95. Y.

- This machine was given to the museum by George B. Grant’s half-brother, Edwin A. Bayley.

- Compare MA*310647 and MA*335633. MA*310647 has a metal plate at the back not found on MA*335633.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1893

- maker
- Grant, George B.

- ID Number
- MA*310647

- catalog number
- 310647

- accession number
- 118852

- maker number
- 1.95. Y

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Grant Grasshopper Calculating Machine

- Description
- This lever-set non-printing manually operated connection pawl calculating machine has an open iron frame painted black, with steel and brass parts and paper labels. Five pins at the front of the machine slide backward to set digits. Next to each pin is a thin strip of paper with the digits from 0 to 9 printed on it, the digits increasing toward the back of the machine. Each strip also has complementary digits in smaller type, for use in subtraction and division.

- Moving back a pin drives back a toothed rack. Behind the racks is a movable carriage with 11 gears on it. A paper strip with digits on it is next to each gear. Turning a crank at the front right of the machine moves the racks back to engage the gears, turning each one of them in proportion to the number set. When the adding frame reaches the end of its backward movement, a cam set on the crank shaft at the front raises all the register gears a little so that the gears are disengaged from the racks and not moved in the return motion The cam on this machine is smaller than on other Grant grasshopper machines, but like that on MA*311941.

- One tooth on each gear extends so that when the gear has made a complete rotation, it engages one of the carry teeth arranged on a spiral shaft above the carriage. As the adding racks return to position, the shaft revolves and the carry tooth pushes the next gear up by one, resulting in a carry. Releasing the carriage and turning it one revolution zeros the result shaft.

- A mark on a paper tag to the right of the rightmost pin reads: Grant Calculating Machine Co. (/) LEXINGTON, MASS., U.S.A. (/) MACHINE NUMBER 18M .

- This machine was given to the museum by George B. Grant’s half-brother, Edwin A. Bayley.

- References:

*Machinery*, October 1895.

- E. Martin,
*The Calculating Machines (Die Rechenmaschinen)*, trans. P. A. Kidwell and M. R. Williams, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992, p. 77.

- U.S. Patent 605,288 (June 7, 1898).

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1896

- maker
- Grant Calculating Machine Company

- ID Number
- MA*310648

- catalog number
- 310648

- accession number
- 118852

- maker number
- 18M

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Grant Grasshopper Calculating Machine

- Description
- This lever-set, non-printing manually operated connection pawl calculating machine has an open iron frame with steel and brass parts and paper labels. Five pins at the front of the machine slide back to set numbers. Next to each pin is a thin strip of paper that has the digits from 0 to 9 printed on it, the digits increasing toward the back of the machine. Each strip also has complementary digits in smaller type, for use in subtraction and division. Moving back a pin drives back a toothed rack.

- Behind the racks is a movable carriage with 11 gears on it. A paper strip with digits on it is next to each gear. Turning a crank at the front right of the machine moves the racks back so that they engage the gears, turning each one of them in proportion to the number set.

- This machine has a pin which can be set to prevent the crank from turning. When the adding frame reaches the end of its backward movement, a cam set on the crank shaft at the front raises all the register gears a little so that the gears are disengaged from the racks and not moved in the return motion.

- The cam on this machine is smaller than on other Grant grasshopper machines. One tooth on each gear extends so that when the gear has made a complete rotation, it engages one of the carry teeth arranged on a spiral shaft above the carriage. As the adding racks return to position, the shaft revolves and the carry tooth pushes the next gear up by one, resulting in a carry. Releasing the carriage and turning it one revolution zeros the result shaft.

- The carriage on this machine appears to be frozen in place. An aluminum support at the back causes the top to slope forward.

- A paper tag to the right of the pins for setting up numbers reads: Grant Calculating Machine Company (/) LEXINGTON, MASS., U.S.A. (/) MACHINE NUMBER 41 M.

- Compare MA*310647, MA*310648, MA*323615 and MA*335633.

- This machine is from the collection of L. Leland Locke.

- References:

*Machinery*, October, 1895.

- E. Martin,
*The Calculating Machines (Die Rechenmaschinen)*, trans. P. A. Kidwell and M. R. Williams, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1992, p. 77.

- G. B. Grant, "Calculating-Machine," U. S. Patent 605,288 (June 7, 1898).

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1896

- maker
- Grant Calculating Machine Company

- ID Number
- MA*311941

- catalog number
- 311941

- accession number
- 155183

- maker number
- 41M

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center