Science & Mathematics
The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.
The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.
"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 1 items.
- This small stylus-operated non-printing adding machine has seven chains in parallel columns. The links visible in each column are numbered from 1 to 9. A stylus is placed in a link of the chain and pulled down to enter a digit. Above the columns are seven windows to show results On the right is a knob which may be intended for zeroing. The device sits in a small steel stand that has four rubber feet. The stylus is missing.
- The machine is marked on the bottom: PATENTED MARCH 1ST 1904 - MARCH 27TH 1906. (/) UNITED STATES AND FOREIGN PATENTS PENDING. It is marked on the left side: No. 8445 (/) AUTOMATIC ADDING MACHINE CO. (/) NEW YORK U.S.A. It is marked on the stand: GEM. A paper tag has Felt & Tarrant adding machine collection number 37.
- According to U.S. Census records, Abraham Isaac Gancher was born in Russia of Russian parents in about 1875. He came to the United States in 1892 and initially worked as a leather salesman. He and his wife, Rebecca Gancher, mariied in 1899. Gancher became interested in adding machines a few years later. He was active in the Automatic Adding Machine Company through at least 1918. Nobyoshi A. Kodama, who took out early patents used in the GEM, had pulled out of the picture by 1908.
- Compare to 1981.0935.01.
- Gancher went on to patent and sell a printing adding machine that was also sold by Automatic Adding Machine as the Gancher. See U.S. patents 1047199 (1912) and 1178227 (1916).
- Ads in Scientific American, vol. 95, October, 1906, p. 314; vol. 96, March 2, 1907, p. 203; and vol. 96, Mar. 30, 1907.
- Nobyoshi A. Kodama, “Automatic Adding and subtracting Apparatus,” U.S. Patent 783,586, March 1, 1904. Kodama was a subject of the Emperor of Japan living in New York City, New York. He assigned half of the patent to Rebecca Gancher of New York, N.Y.
- Nobyoshi A. Kodama and Abraham I. Gancher, “Adding-Machine,” U.S. Patent 816,342, March 27, 1906. Kodama was a subject of the Mikado of Japan. Both he and Gancher, a U.S. citizen, were living in Manhattan, New York. The patent was assigned to Automatic Adding Machine Company of New York, N.Y.
- Abraham I. Gancher and Albert T. Zabriskie, “Adding-Machine,” U.S. Patent 847,759, March 19,1907. This patent describes the stand. It was assigned to Automatic Adding Machine Company of New York, N.Y.
- Abraham I. Gancher, “Adding-Machine,” U.S. Patent 1015307, January 31, 1912.
- Currently not on view
- date made
- Automatic Adding Machine Company
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- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center