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Science & Mathematics

The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.

The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.

"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 10 items.

## Instruction Manual for Pickett Slide Rules with Ln-L Scales

- Description
- Maurice Hartung of the University of Chicago wrote this sixteen-page booklet to explain the use of natural log and logarithmic scales placed on Pickett's line of "dual-base" slide rules. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use Ln-L Scale Slide Rules*(Santa Barbara, Calif.: Pickett, Inc., n.d.). The logo and address on the cover were in use from 1964.

- Pickett used these scales on several models represented in the Smithsonian collections, including 3, 4, 515, 600, and 1010. The rules depicted in the booklet are models 1011 and 4, similar to 2000.0203.01. Hartung explains how to find logarithms and natural logs (by reading the mantissa), powers of
*e*and 10, logarithms of proper fractions, powers for negative exponents, and the characteristic. He explains how to place the decimal point and how to correct for the error introduced when the number 2.3 is used to estimate*e*. He then covers multiplication, division, logarithms of combined operations, powers of other bases, hyperbolic functions, and applied problems.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- after 1964

- maker
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1980.0097.04

- accession number
- 1980.0097

- catalog number
- 1980.0097.04

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Dietzgen 1771 Redirule Slide Rule

- Description
- This sixteen-page booklet lists no author or date. Its drawing of a slide rule corresponds to 1993.0357.02, with which it was received. The instructions explain how to: read the scales; multiply; place the decimal point; divide; combine multiplication and division; solve proportion problems; read the CI scale; compute squares and square roots and cubes and cube roots; solve problems in trigonometry; and work with logarithms.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1941-1972

- maker
- Eugene Dietzgen Company

- ID Number
- 1993.0357.02.01

- accession number
- 1993.0357

- catalog number
- 1993.0357.02.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Pickett Trig Slide Rule Instruction Manual

- Description
- This 64-page booklet was received with 1993.0559.01. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use . . . Trig Slide Rules*(Chicago: Pickett & Eckel Inc., 1960). It sold separately for fifty cents. Hartung was the University of Chicago professor who was closely associated with Pickett & Eckel in the company's early years and who wrote several instruction manuals for the firm's slide rules.

- The booklet discusses slide rule operation, use of certain special scales, applications of trigonometry, and the principles underlying slide rules. Hartung focused on the operations of the instrument rather than on mathematical theory. There are problem sets at the end of each section, with answers in the back of the manual, and a few sets of "practical" (word) problems. Another copy of the booklet is scanned at http://sliderulemuseum.com/Manuals/M104_Pickett_HowToUseTrig_1960.pdf.

- Reference: "Maurice Leslie Hartung,"
*Mathematics Genealogy Project*, http://www.genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/id.php?id=7964. Hartung received a life achievement award from the Illinois Council of Teachers of Mathematics in 1977, http://ictm.org/ictmawards/lifeachievement.html.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1960

- publisher
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1993.0559.01.01

- accession number
- 1993.0559

- catalog number
- 1993.0559.01.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Pickett & Eckel Log Log Trig Slide Rule

- Description
- The citation information for this small 32-page booklet is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use the 300 Log Log Trig Pocket Slide Rule*(Chicago: Pickett & Eckel, Inc., 1949). It provides general information on how to use slide rules, including the arithmetical operations, locating the decimal point, combining multiplication and division, using the folded scales, calculating roots, trigonometry, and vectors.

- Model 300 was a six-inch, pocket-sized duplex slide rule and is not presently represented in the Smithsonian collections, although 1999.0096.01 is a ten-inch log log trig rule. Hartung was a University of Chicago professor who helped Pickett & Eckel market their products to schools and who wrote several instruction manuals for the company's slide rules. See 1979.0601.02.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1949

- maker
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1979.0601.03

- accession number
- 1979.0601

- catalog number
- 1979.0601.03

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Pickett & Eckel Deci Log Log Slide Rule

- Description
- This 32-page booklet was received with 1979.0601.02. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use the Deci Log Log Slide Rule*(Chicago: Pickett & Eckel, Inc., 1947). Hartung, a University of Chicago professor and consultant to Pickett & Eckel, provided a basic overview of mathematical operations on the slide rule. He then explained placing the decimal point; the inverted scales; scales for squares and cubes, logarithms, and trigonometry; and solving problems using multiple scales. He next described the log log scales in a section that has several diagrams of slide rules.

- A pink paper sheet on caring for the slide rule is inside the booklet. A previous owner has written in a few corrections, including an updated population of the United States of 175 million in 1957.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1947

- maker
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1979.0601.04

- accession number
- 1979.0601

- catalog number
- 1979.0601.04

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Pickett Manual for Model 3 Duplex Slide Rule

- Description
- This eight-page pamphlet, titled
*How to Use Model 3 Powerlog Slide Rules*, is a supplement to Maurice L. Hartung,*How to Use Dual Base Log Log Slide Rules*(Santa Barbara, Calif.: Pickett, Inc., 1947). Hartung also wrote this pamphlet, probably around 1947. He explains scales not found on other Pickett models, namely, the extended square root, cube root, and tangent scales. Model 3 also had an extra log log scale (LL0).

- This printing was made after the company moved to Santa Barbara in 1964. See the associated items, 1980.0097.01 and 1980.0097.05.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date written
- 1947

- date printed
- ca 1965

- maker
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- printer
- Pickett Industries

- ID Number
- 1980.0097.06

- accession number
- 1980.0097

- catalog number
- 1980.0097.06

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Pickett 101-C Circular Slide Rule

- Description
- This 24-page booklet was received with 1981.0922.12. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*Dial Rule Circular Slide Rule: Your Model No. 101-C Instruction Manual*(Chicago & Alhambra, Calif.: Pickett & Eckel, Inc., 1957). The back is marked: PRINTED IN U.S.A.; FORM M-18. The Pickett logo on the front cover was used between 1958 and 1962.

- The manual provides instructions and processes for the C and CI scales, multiplication, division, combined operations, the A and A
_{f}scales (for square roots), logarithms and adding fractions, the LL scale, the DS and DT scales (for drill sizes and double depth of threads), the M scale (for metric conversions), and the S, ST, and T scales (for trigonometry). There are 24 problems and answers on the back page.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1958

- publisher
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1981.0922.13

- accession number
- 1981.0922

- catalog number
- 1981.0922.13

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Dietzgen Instruction Manual for Maniphase Slide Rule

- Description
- The citation information for this sixteen-page booklet is:
*Self-teaching Instruction Manual: Maniphase Slide Rule*(Chicago: Eugene Dietzgen Co., n.d.). The slide rule depicted inside the manual is Dietzgen's "National," model 1767, and the manual was received with 1988.0367.01. Detailed instructions are provided for reading the scales, multiplication, placing the decimal point, division, proportion, squares and square roots, cube and cube roots, trigonometry, and logarithms. "Maniphase" on the cover refers to an arrangement of scales in which the company added K and CI scales to Mannheim rules; the word is printed on several slide rules sold by the Eugene Dietzgen Company. Indeed, the manual indicates portions of it could be used with other Dietzgen slide rules, such as model 1772A.

- Reference: Walter Shawlee, "The Dietzgen Company Archive," http://www.sphere.bc.ca/test/dietzgen.html.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1950s

- maker
- Eugene Dietzgen Company

- ID Number
- 1988.0367.02

- accession number
- 1988.0367

- catalog number
- 1988.0367.02

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instructions for Pickett Student Slide Rules

- Description
- Maurice L. Hartung, associate professor of the teaching of mathematics at the University of Chicago, wrote this sixteen-page pamphlet,
*How to Use Basic Slide Rules in 3 Easy Steps*for Pickett & Eckel, a slide rule manufacturer established in Chicago in the late 1940s. Hartung advocated for the adoption of Pickett slide rules in schools, and he wrote several instruction manuals that the company reprinted and distributed through the 1960s.

- The pamphlet uses drawings of slide rules and numerous "call-out" text boxes to explain how students could use the instrument's C and D scales to multiply and divide. The second part of the pamphlet explains the CI scale ("I" stands for "inverse"), provides instructions for finding squares and square roots with the A and B scales, and discusses the role of the K scale in finding cubes and cube roots. The third and final section of the pamphlet addresses logarithmic and trigonometric functions, which were found with the L, S, and T scales.

- This copy was packaged with 1991.0445.02; of the scales explained in the instructions, this instrument lacked only the S and T scales for sines and tangents. If sold separately, the booklet would have cost 35 cents. The back of the pamphlet is marked: Pickett Inc.; Chicago 5 • SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA. It is also marked: Form M-20. The location and name of the company suggest the pamphlet was printed after 1964.

- Reference: International Slide Rule Museum, "Pickett All-Metal Slide Rules," http://sliderulemuseum.com/SR_Dates.htm#Pickett. This site provides a scan of another copy of this pamphlet, http://sliderulemuseum.com/Manuals/M52_Pickett_HowToUseSR_3EasySteps_FormM-20.pdf.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- after 1964

- publisher
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1991.0445.02.01

- accession number
- 1991.0445

- catalog number
- 1991.0445.02.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Pickett Elementary Simplex Math Slide Rule Instructions

- Description
- Maurice L. Hartung, a mathematics professor at the University of Chicago, wrote this 48-page booklet in 1965. It sold separately for $1.00, but it was also included with Pickett's N901 simplex slide rule (1995.0126.02). John W. Pickett marketed that rule to teachers and students from the second grade up.

- The instructions are structured as a workbook, requiring students to fill in a blank for each numbered item. The items both explain the slide rule's functions and test students' comprehension. The answers are printed in the right margin of each page. The manual covers addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, proportion and percent, scientific notation, decimal points, squares and square roots, and the C, D, CI, and L scales. The inside back cover advertises the benefits of Pickett all metal slide rules and provides instructions for caring for the slide rule.

- The ten-digit phone number for Pickett, Inc., in Santa Barbara, Calif., is written in ink on the back cover of the booklet, above the printed copyright date and company address.

- References: Greg Scott, "Pickett – Elementary Simplex Math Slide Rule," http://sliderule.ozmanor.com/man/man020-pickn901es-01.html.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- after 1965

- date received
- 1995

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1995.0126.02.01

- accession number
- 1995.0126

- catalog number
- 1995.0126.02.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center