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Science & Mathematics

The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.

The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.

"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 10 items.

## Instruction Manual for Dietzgen 1771 Redirule Slide Rule

- Description
- This sixteen-page booklet lists no author or date. Its drawing of a slide rule corresponds to 1993.0357.02, with which it was received. The instructions explain how to: read the scales; multiply; place the decimal point; divide; combine multiplication and division; solve proportion problems; read the CI scale; compute squares and square roots and cubes and cube roots; solve problems in trigonometry; and work with logarithms.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1941-1972

- maker
- Eugene Dietzgen Company

- ID Number
- 1993.0357.02.01

- accession number
- 1993.0357

- catalog number
- 1993.0357.02.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Pickett & Eckel Log Log Trig Slide Rule

- Description
- The citation information for this small 32-page booklet is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use the 300 Log Log Trig Pocket Slide Rule*(Chicago: Pickett & Eckel, Inc., 1949). It provides general information on how to use slide rules, including the arithmetical operations, locating the decimal point, combining multiplication and division, using the folded scales, calculating roots, trigonometry, and vectors.

- Model 300 was a six-inch, pocket-sized duplex slide rule and is not presently represented in the Smithsonian collections, although 1999.0096.01 is a ten-inch log log trig rule. Hartung was a University of Chicago professor who helped Pickett & Eckel market their products to schools and who wrote several instruction manuals for the company's slide rules. See 1979.0601.02.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1949

- maker
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1979.0601.03

- accession number
- 1979.0601

- catalog number
- 1979.0601.03

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Pickett & Eckel Deci Log Log Slide Rule

- Description
- This 32-page booklet was received with 1979.0601.02. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use the Deci Log Log Slide Rule*(Chicago: Pickett & Eckel, Inc., 1947). Hartung, a University of Chicago professor and consultant to Pickett & Eckel, provided a basic overview of mathematical operations on the slide rule. He then explained placing the decimal point; the inverted scales; scales for squares and cubes, logarithms, and trigonometry; and solving problems using multiple scales. He next described the log log scales in a section that has several diagrams of slide rules.

- A pink paper sheet on caring for the slide rule is inside the booklet. A previous owner has written in a few corrections, including an updated population of the United States of 175 million in 1957.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1947

- maker
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1979.0601.04

- accession number
- 1979.0601

- catalog number
- 1979.0601.04

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Pickett 101-C Circular Slide Rule

- Description
- This 24-page booklet was received with 1981.0922.12. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*Dial Rule Circular Slide Rule: Your Model No. 101-C Instruction Manual*(Chicago & Alhambra, Calif.: Pickett & Eckel, Inc., 1957). The back is marked: PRINTED IN U.S.A.; FORM M-18. The Pickett logo on the front cover was used between 1958 and 1962.

- The manual provides instructions and processes for the C and CI scales, multiplication, division, combined operations, the A and A
_{f}scales (for square roots), logarithms and adding fractions, the LL scale, the DS and DT scales (for drill sizes and double depth of threads), the M scale (for metric conversions), and the S, ST, and T scales (for trigonometry). There are 24 problems and answers on the back page.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1958

- publisher
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1981.0922.13

- accession number
- 1981.0922

- catalog number
- 1981.0922.13

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Directions for the Use of Hemmi Slide Rules

- Description
- This stapled ten-page leaflet arrived with 1982.0386.02. It is marked "Printed in Japan" and probably dates to the mid-1930s. It is titled, Short Directions for the Use of the "Hemmi's" Bamboo Slide Rules, and there are indications throughout the text that its author was not a native speaker of English.

- The leaflet explains what a slide rule is. There are sections for Hemmi Normal Slide Rules, the Electro Slide Rule with Log Log Scale, and the Improved Slide Rule. The leaflet also contains an illustration of reading graduations on the scales, an explanation of Hemmi's construction techniques, and various technical problems that could be solved with slide rules. ID number 1982.0386.02 resembles the slide rule illustrated on p. 1, although the drawing shows a ruler in inches on the top edge and depicts PATENT No 58115 as written on the indicator. The example in the collections lacks the ruler and the reference to what is presumably a Japanese patent.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1931-1939

- maker
- SUN HEMMI JAPAN CF

- ID Number
- 1982.0386.03

- accession number
- 1982.0386

- catalog number
- 1982.0386.03

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Keuffel & Esser 68-2047 Log Log Duplex Decitrig Manual and S14-5 Care Instructions

- Description
- ID number 1987.0085.01, a model 68–1210 Log Log Duplex Decitrig slide rule by Keuffel & Esser of New York, was received with these two paperback booklets. The citation information for the first booklet is: Lyman M. Kells, Willis F. Kern, and James R. Bland,
*K&E Slide Rule Manual: Log Log Duplex Decitrig*, 4th ed. (New York: Keuffel & Esser Co., 1955). Kells, Kern, and Bland were all mathematics professors at the United States Naval Academy; they first prepared this manual in 1943. They designed the book for students to learn to operate slide rules on their own, without the aid of a teacher.

- The manual covers the following topics: multiplication and division; the proportion principle and combined operations; squares and square roots, cubes and cube roots; trigonometry; the log log scales; and logarithms and the slide rule. Included are exercises, answers, and a historical note (featuring K&E's contributions to the development of slide rules). The manual was previously K&E model number 4187S.

- The second pamphlet is small (4 X 3 inches) and titled: "How to Take Care of Your Slide Rule." It was copyrighted in 1944, 1949, 1958, and 1962. Users are to clean the slide rule only with a moistened cloth. Instructions are provided for adjusting and aligning the slide rule.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1955-1962

- author
- Kells, Lyman M.

- Kern, Willis F.

- Bland, James R.

- publisher
- Keuffel & Esser Co.

- ID Number
- 1987.0085.02

- accession number
- 1987.0085

- catalog number
- 1987.0085.02

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Dietzgen Instruction Manual for Maniphase Slide Rule

- Description
- The citation information for this sixteen-page booklet is:
*Self-teaching Instruction Manual: Maniphase Slide Rule*(Chicago: Eugene Dietzgen Co., n.d.). The slide rule depicted inside the manual is Dietzgen's "National," model 1767, and the manual was received with 1988.0367.01. Detailed instructions are provided for reading the scales, multiplication, placing the decimal point, division, proportion, squares and square roots, cube and cube roots, trigonometry, and logarithms. "Maniphase" on the cover refers to an arrangement of scales in which the company added K and CI scales to Mannheim rules; the word is printed on several slide rules sold by the Eugene Dietzgen Company. Indeed, the manual indicates portions of it could be used with other Dietzgen slide rules, such as model 1772A.

- Reference: Walter Shawlee, "The Dietzgen Company Archive," http://www.sphere.bc.ca/test/dietzgen.html.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1950s

- maker
- Eugene Dietzgen Company

- ID Number
- 1988.0367.02

- accession number
- 1988.0367

- catalog number
- 1988.0367.02

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instructions for Pickett Student Slide Rules

- Description
- Maurice L. Hartung, associate professor of the teaching of mathematics at the University of Chicago, wrote this sixteen-page pamphlet,
*How to Use Basic Slide Rules in 3 Easy Steps*for Pickett & Eckel, a slide rule manufacturer established in Chicago in the late 1940s. Hartung advocated for the adoption of Pickett slide rules in schools, and he wrote several instruction manuals that the company reprinted and distributed through the 1960s.

- The pamphlet uses drawings of slide rules and numerous "call-out" text boxes to explain how students could use the instrument's C and D scales to multiply and divide. The second part of the pamphlet explains the CI scale ("I" stands for "inverse"), provides instructions for finding squares and square roots with the A and B scales, and discusses the role of the K scale in finding cubes and cube roots. The third and final section of the pamphlet addresses logarithmic and trigonometric functions, which were found with the L, S, and T scales.

- This copy was packaged with 1991.0445.02; of the scales explained in the instructions, this instrument lacked only the S and T scales for sines and tangents. If sold separately, the booklet would have cost 35 cents. The back of the pamphlet is marked: Pickett Inc.; Chicago 5 • SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA. It is also marked: Form M-20. The location and name of the company suggest the pamphlet was printed after 1964.

- Reference: International Slide Rule Museum, "Pickett All-Metal Slide Rules," http://sliderulemuseum.com/SR_Dates.htm#Pickett. This site provides a scan of another copy of this pamphlet, http://sliderulemuseum.com/Manuals/M52_Pickett_HowToUseSR_3EasySteps_FormM-20.pdf.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- after 1964

- publisher
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1991.0445.02.01

- accession number
- 1991.0445

- catalog number
- 1991.0445.02.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Pickett Elementary Simplex Math Slide Rule Instructions

- Description
- Maurice L. Hartung, a mathematics professor at the University of Chicago, wrote this 48-page booklet in 1965. It sold separately for $1.00, but it was also included with Pickett's N901 simplex slide rule (1995.0126.02). John W. Pickett marketed that rule to teachers and students from the second grade up.

- The instructions are structured as a workbook, requiring students to fill in a blank for each numbered item. The items both explain the slide rule's functions and test students' comprehension. The answers are printed in the right margin of each page. The manual covers addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, proportion and percent, scientific notation, decimal points, squares and square roots, and the C, D, CI, and L scales. The inside back cover advertises the benefits of Pickett all metal slide rules and provides instructions for caring for the slide rule.

- The ten-digit phone number for Pickett, Inc., in Santa Barbara, Calif., is written in ink on the back cover of the booklet, above the printed copyright date and company address.

- References: Greg Scott, "Pickett – Elementary Simplex Math Slide Rule," http://sliderule.ozmanor.com/man/man020-pickn901es-01.html.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- after 1965

- date received
- 1995

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1995.0126.02.01

- accession number
- 1995.0126

- catalog number
- 1995.0126.02.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Keuffel & Esser N4053 Polyphase Slide Rule Manual

- Description
- The citation information for this paperback book is: William E. Breckenridge,
*The Polyphase Slide Rule No. N4053: A Self Teaching Manual*, 3rd ed. (New York: Keuffel & Esser Co., 1944). According to Clark McCoy, this example comes from the first of two printings of the manual with the 1944 copyright date; the cover and first few pages were changed in the second printing, which was also marked with the K+E logo that was introduced in 1949. This example has the earlier K&E lion logo.

- Breckenridge earned an A.M. in mathematics from Columbia University in New York City, was chair of the mathematics department at Stuyvesant High School around 1909–1910, served as an associate editor of
*The Mathematics Teacher*from 1913 to 1928, and apparently also taught at Columbia. He first wrote this manual in 1924. It has 88 pages that describe the uses of slide rules and explain processes for making calculations and locating the decimal point. Breckenridge also discussed the history and theory of the slide rule before providing worked-out examples and exercises for readers to solve. There are also "advanced problems," material on plane trigonometry and triangles, and problems specific to certain occupations and tasks.

- At the back of the book, there are advertisements for K&E's specialty slide rules, the all-plastic Ever-There line of slide rules, and surveying instruments such as transits. This manual was received with MA*321780.

- References: Clark McCoy, ed., "The Polyphase Slide Rule No. N4053," http://www.mccoys-kecatalogs.com/KEManuals/4053-1944/4053-1944.htm; William E. Breckenridge,
*The Polyphase Slide Rule*, [3rd ed.] (New York: Keuffel & Esser Co., 1944), http://sliderulemuseum.com/SR_Library_KE.htm.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1944

- author
- Breckenridge, William E.

- ID Number
- MA*304213.05

- accession number
- 304213

- catalog number
- 304213.05

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center