#
Science & Mathematics

The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.

The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.

"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 23 items.

Page 1 of 3

## Instruction Manual for Pickett Slide Rules with Ln-L Scales

- Description
- Maurice Hartung of the University of Chicago wrote this sixteen-page booklet to explain the use of natural log and logarithmic scales placed on Pickett's line of "dual-base" slide rules. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use Ln-L Scale Slide Rules*(Santa Barbara, Calif.: Pickett, Inc., n.d.). The logo and address on the cover were in use from 1964.

- Pickett used these scales on several models represented in the Smithsonian collections, including 3, 4, 515, 600, and 1010. The rules depicted in the booklet are models 1011 and 4, similar to 2000.0203.01. Hartung explains how to find logarithms and natural logs (by reading the mantissa), powers of
*e*and 10, logarithms of proper fractions, powers for negative exponents, and the characteristic. He explains how to place the decimal point and how to correct for the error introduced when the number 2.3 is used to estimate*e*. He then covers multiplication, division, logarithms of combined operations, powers of other bases, hyperbolic functions, and applied problems.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- after 1964

- maker
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1980.0097.04

- accession number
- 1980.0097

- catalog number
- 1980.0097.04

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Charles Bruning Model 2401 Slide Rule

- Description
- The citation information for this 16-page pamphlet is Charles Bruning Company, Inc.,
*Instruction Manual for Bruning Slide Rule No. 2401*(New York, 1944). The cover notes that the company had applied for a patent on a slide rule indicator, but no such patent has been found. The manual begins with the claim that results on model 2401 were significant to three digits. After explaining the parts of a slide rule, the manual divides the process of learning to use a slide rule into twelve steps, each of which are discussed with examples, solutions, and exercises in the remainder of the pamphlet. This manual was received with 1991.0445.03.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1944

- maker
- Charles Bruning Company, Inc.

- ID Number
- 1991.0445.03.01

- accession number
- 1991.0445

- catalog number
- 1991.0445.03.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Keuffel & Esser Polyphase Duplex Pocket Slide Rule

- Description
- This 70-page booklet was received with 1993.0357.01. The book explains how to operate model 68–1555, which was model 4168 before 1962. Its citation information is:
*Keuffel & Esser Polyphase Duplex Pocket Slide Rule . . . Instruction Manual*, 2nd ed. (New York: Keuffel & Esser Co., 1947). Presumably only the cover and illustration of the slide rule were updated in the 1960s. Topics covered include: multiplication and division, proportion, squares and square roots and cubes and cube roots, and plane trigonometry. Answers are provided at the back.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1960s

- maker
- Keuffel & Esser Co.

- ID Number
- 1993.0357.01.01

- accession number
- 1993.0357

- catalog number
- 1993.0357.01.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Pickett Trig Slide Rule Instruction Manual

- Description
- This 64-page booklet was received with 1993.0559.01. Its citation information is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use . . . Trig Slide Rules*(Chicago: Pickett & Eckel Inc., 1960). It sold separately for fifty cents. Hartung was the University of Chicago professor who was closely associated with Pickett & Eckel in the company's early years and who wrote several instruction manuals for the firm's slide rules.

- The booklet discusses slide rule operation, use of certain special scales, applications of trigonometry, and the principles underlying slide rules. Hartung focused on the operations of the instrument rather than on mathematical theory. There are problem sets at the end of each section, with answers in the back of the manual, and a few sets of "practical" (word) problems. Another copy of the booklet is scanned at http://sliderulemuseum.com/Manuals/M104_Pickett_HowToUseTrig_1960.pdf.

- Reference: "Maurice Leslie Hartung,"
*Mathematics Genealogy Project*, http://www.genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/id.php?id=7964. Hartung received a life achievement award from the Illinois Council of Teachers of Mathematics in 1977, http://ictm.org/ictmawards/lifeachievement.html.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1960

- publisher
- Pickett Industries

- author
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1993.0559.01.01

- accession number
- 1993.0559

- catalog number
- 1993.0559.01.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Gerber Variable Scale

- Description
- The citation information for this 40-page stapled booklet is: H. Joseph Gerber,
*The Gerber Variable Scale: An Application and Instruction Manual*(Hartford, Conn.: The Gerber Scientific Instrument Company, 1981). Gerber wrote these instructions in 1953 to accompany his invention; see 1994.0113.01. He inscribed this copy to Steve Lubar, who was chair of the division of history of technology when Gerber donated examples of several mathematical instruments he had invented.

- The booklet explains the construction and use of the Gerber Variable Scale. It then describes typical problems that could be solved with the instrument, including finding points in a family of curves, translating curves, reading graphs more precisely, converting between proportional scales, enlarging and reducing engineering drawings, normalizing curves, interpolating points, counting cycles of frequencies, dividing one curve by another, determining the center of gravity, reading oscillograms, and mapping aerial photographs.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1981

- maker
- Gerber Scientific Instrument Co.

- ID Number
- 1994.0113.04

- accession number
- 1994.0113

- catalog number
- 1994.0113.04

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Pickett Decimal-Keeper Slide Rule Instructions

- Description
- This twelve-page booklet was received with 1995.0126.01. Titled "How To Use Decimal-Keeper Slide Rules," it is another of the instruction manuals Maurice L. Hartung wrote for Pickett & Eckel, Inc., a slide rule manufacturer based in Chicago and Alhambra, Calif. Hartung explained how Pickett had reduced the scales on slide rules in the Decimal-Keeper line so that one ten-inch Decimal-Keeper became equivalent to twenty ordinary ten-inch linear slide rules. These reduced scales are the scales marked with asterisks on Decimal-Keeper slide rules.

- There are also instructions for locating the proper section of the scale, carrying out division, computing trigonometric functions, calculating roots, finding logarithms, and adjusting and cleaning the slide rule. The booklet is undated. Separately, it sold for 50 cents and had model number M-17.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1960

- maker
- Pickett & Eckel, Incorporated

- ID Number
- 1995.0126.04

- accession number
- 1995.0126

- catalog number
- 1995.0126.04

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Manual for Gilson Midget Circular Slide Rule

- Description
- This twelve-page booklet was received with 1998.0119.01. It provides instructions for using the Midget circular slide rule manufactured by Gilson Slide Rule Company of Stuart, Fla. It describes each of the scales and gives a sample problem for computing a merchant's overhead costs as a percentage of profit. It advertises Gilson's Atlas and Binary slide rules and provides a list of formulas and equivalent measurements.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1940

- maker
- Gilson Slide Rule Company

- ID Number
- 1998.0119.03

- catalog number
- 1998.0119.03

- accession number
- 1998.0119

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instructions for Staedtler-Mars Model 944-24 Slide Rule

- Description
- This tan, 36-page booklet is titled: Staedtler-Mars Instructions for Use, Modles [
*sic*] No. 944 24 No. 945 24 Bamboo Slide Rule. The back cover is marked: Printed in Japan.

- The instructions define the scales; explain how to multiply and divide; solve problems of proportion; discuss squares and square roots; calculate cubes, cube roots, 3/2 power, and 2/3 power; explain logarithms; provide processes for trigonometric functions; discuss the P or Pythagorean scale; explain the LL scales; and define this rule's five gauge marks. The German firm of Staedtler distributed the rule with which the booklet was received (2009.0019.02). Ricoh, the Japanese company that made the rule, presumably prepared the instructions.

- Reference: Paul Ross, "Relay/Ricoh Slide Rules,"
*Journal of the Oughtred Society*9, no. 2 (2000): 64–65.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1960-1972

- maker
- Ricoh Measuring Instruments

- ID Number
- 2009.0019.02.01

- accession number
- 2009.0019

- catalog number
- 2009.0019.02.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Cooper 100-Inch Slide Rule

- Description
- This undated 16-page booklet was received with MA*326237. It is titled,
*The 'Cooper' 100-inch Slide Rule (Patented). Designed for Use in Calculations Involving Multiplication, Division, Proportion, Percentages, Powers, Roots, Logarithms, etc. etc.*The description of the calculator claims it reads to four decimal places. Instructions for currency conversion are also provided. Partial tables of decimal equivalents appear as an advertisement for*The Instanter Decimal Tables*, published by Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co. of London.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- before 1923

- ID Number
- MA*259739.01

- accession number
- 259739

- catalog number
- 259739.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Instruction Manual for Pickett & Eckel Log Log Trig Slide Rule

- Description
- The citation information for this small 32-page booklet is: Maurice L. Hartung,
*How to Use the 300 Log Log Trig Pocket Slide Rule*(Chicago: Pickett & Eckel, Inc., 1949). It provides general information on how to use slide rules, including the arithmetical operations, locating the decimal point, combining multiplication and division, using the folded scales, calculating roots, trigonometry, and vectors.

- Model 300 was a six-inch, pocket-sized duplex slide rule and is not presently represented in the Smithsonian collections, although 1999.0096.01 is a ten-inch log log trig rule. Hartung was a University of Chicago professor who helped Pickett & Eckel market their products to schools and who wrote several instruction manuals for the company's slide rules. See 1979.0601.02.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1949

- maker
- Hartung, Maurice L.

- ID Number
- 1979.0601.03

- accession number
- 1979.0601

- catalog number
- 1979.0601.03

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center