#
Science & Mathematics

The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.

The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.

"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 2135 items.

Page 194 of 214

## WFF 'N PROOF: The Game of Modern Logic

- Description
- This set of 21 games taught principles of modern logic. Players learned to combine grammatically correct logical statements called well-formed formulae (WFFs) into logical proofs. WFF 'N Proof was developed by Layman E. Allan of Yale University Law School under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation for ALL (Accelerated Learning of Logic). Allen applied for a trademark for WFF ‘N Proof in August 1961; it was registered the following year but has now expired. The game sold from 1962.

- The set includes 18 wooden cubes with small letters, representing sentences, and 18 with large letters, representing logical rules of inference. The simplest of the games in WFF ‘N Proof were designed to teach young children how to arrange these cubes on a series of paper mats to form WFFs. The remaining games were meant to teach how to argue logically. These games involve assuming the truth of WFFs of certain forms and concluding the truth of WFFs of other forms using logical rules of inference. Thus players proved theorems but did not use that terminology. The most advanced of these games were designed to challenge college students.

- The set also includes a timer, a book of instructions written by Allen,
*WFF ‘N Proof: The Game of Modern Logic*(New Haven: Autotelic Instructional Materials Publishers, 1970), and a leaflet describing "Games for Thinkers" from WFF 'N PROOF Publishers of Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. All these materials are stored in a plastic case that is marked on the cover: WFF'N PROOF (/) The Game of Modern Logic.

- In 1968 Layman Allen moved from Yale to the University of Michigan with a joint appointment in the Law School and the Mental Health Research Institute, where he continued his work on instructional games. Over the years the name and location of the distributor of WFF ‘N Proof changed, although the phrase “Games for Thinkers” has been associated with it from before Allen’s move to Ann Arbor. Price lists in the
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF in New Haven, Connecticut, and sold for $6.00. In 1970 the price was raised to $8.00 and in 1971 the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. At some point a firm called Learning Game Associates of Ann Arbor took over distribution of the game and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. Later the Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, became the distributor.

- Reference: Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1970

- developer
- Allen, Layman E.

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335302

- accession number
- 317891

- catalog number
- 335302

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## WFF: The Beginner's Game of Modern Logic

- Description
- This set of two games taught young children how to combine symbols into grammatically correct logical statements called well-formed formulae (WFFs). The two games in this set are the simplest of the twenty-one “Games of Modern Logic” of WFF ‘N Proof (see MA*335302), which was developed by Layman E. Allen of Yale University Law School under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation for ALL (Accelerated Learning of Logic). Allen applied for a trademark for WFF in August 1963; it was registered the following year but has now expired. The game sold from about 1963.

- The set includes twelve wooden cubes, six with lowercase letters and six with uppercase letters, that are used by the players to form WFFs. The lowercase letters represent sentence variables in logic the same way that letters represent number variables in algebra. Uppercase letters represent symbols that allow one to form logical sentences in the same way that the symbols for the four arithmetical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) are used to form algebraic expressions.

- The set also includes two playing mats, a sheet listing “GAMES for THINKERS” that were available from WFF ‘N PROOF, and a 1968 edition of an instruction manual written by Allen,
*WFF: The Beginner’s Games of Logic*. All these materials are stored in a cardboard box that is marked on the cover: WFF (/) The Beginner’s Game (/) of Modern Logic.

- In 1968 Allen moved from Yale to the University of Michigan with a joint appointment in the Law School and the Mental Health Research Institute, where he continued his work on instructional games. Over the years the name and location of the distributor of WFF changed, although the phrase “Games For Thinkers” has been associated with it from before Allen’s move to Ann Arbor. Price lists in the
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF in New Haven, Connecticut, and sold for $1.50, including postage. In 1971 the price was raised to $1.75 and the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. A firm called Learning Games Associates of Ann Arbor later took over distribution of the game and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. The Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, then became the distributor.

- Reference:

- Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1968

- developer
- Allen, Layman E.

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335303

- accession number
- 317891

- catalog number
- 335303

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## The Deluxe Real Numbers Game

- Description
- This game taught how to build grammatically correct expressions that represent real numbers (numbers that can be written in decimal notation, including those with infinite decimal expansions). Real Numbers was developed by Layman E. Allen at Yale University Law School as director of the ALL (Accelerated Learning of Logic) Project that developed mathematical games under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York.

- The game includes five wooden cubes in a holder with a ballpoint pen. On their faces the cubes have single digit numbers and symbols representing arithmetical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, as well as exponentiation, and taking roots). The game is explained in a four-page pamphlet,
*the REAL numbers game*, written by Allen in 1966.

- The pamphlet explaining the game refers to various types of real numbers including natural numbers (1,2,3 …), integers (… 3, 2, 1,0,1,2,3 …), rational numbers (numbers that can be written as a ratio of two integers with a non-zero denominator), and irrational numbers (real numbers that are not rational numbers, such as the square root of two). After rolling the dice, players attempt to write down all possible real numbers formed from the symbols and numbers shown. The pamphlet also includes rules for scoring.

- The game and the pamphlet explaining it came in a plastic bag that had been stapled to a hanging display label that reads: the deluxe (/) REAL (/) numbers game by Layman E. Allen. The plastic bag also included a sheet listing “GAMES for THINKERS” that were available from WFF ‘N PROOF Publishers and a postcard offering a free one-year subscription to the WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletter.

- In 1968 Allen moved from Yale to the University of Michigan with a joint appointment in the Law School and the Mental Health Research Institute, where he continued his work on instructional games. Over the years the name and location of the distributor of the Real Numbers Game changed, although the phrase “Games For Thinkers” has been associated with it from before Allen’s move to Ann Arbor. Price lists in the
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF in New Haven, Connecticut, and sold for $1.50. In 1970 the price was raised to $2.00 and in 1971 the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. Afirm called Learning Games Associates of Ann Arbor later took over distribution of the game and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. The Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, then became the distributor.

- Reference: Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1966

- developer
- Allen, Layman E.

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335307

- accession number
- 317891

- catalog number
- 335307

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## TAC-TICKLE: A Challenging Game of Pure Strategy

- Description
- This set of eight games was developed by Professor Harry D. Ruderman of Hunter College High School in New York City to teach children the ideas of strategy in an entertaining setting. The basic game and its variations are explained on a single sheet of paper divided into two parts, both written by Ruderman. The first part,
*TAC-TICKLE: A Challenging Game of Pure Strategy*, was written in 1965 and the second,*Additional Variations of Tac-Tickle*, was written in 1967. A trademark for TAC-TICKLE was registered in February 1968 but was later canceled.

- The kit includes eight wooden cubes, four red and four blue, with some faces containing letters and some faces blank. All the cubes are stored in a foam mat with twenty holes. The kit also includes a cardboard mat with fourteen white circles and eight circles containing the “Games for Thinkers” logo. All the variations in the first set of instructions aim to get three cubes of the same color in a line and ignore the letters, while those in the second set of instructions require that one cube of each color has a letter on the top face, and describe alternate, more complicated, ways that the cubes with letters are allowed to move.

- The game and the sheet of instructions were accompanied by a sheet listing “GAMES For THINKERS” that were available from WFF ‘N PROOF Publishers and a postcard offering a free one-year subscription to the WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletter.

- WFF ‘N PROOF Publishers and Newsletter were outgrowths of the ALL (Accelerated Learning of Logic) Project that developed mathematical games under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The director of ALL was Layman E. Allen of Yale University Law School. In 1968 Allen moved from Yale to the University of Michigan with a joint appointment in the Law School and the Mental Health Research Institute, where he continued his work on instructional games. Over the years the name and location of the distributor of the TAC-TICKLE changed, although the phrase “Games For Thinkers” has been associated with it from before Allen’s move to Ann Arbor. Price lists in the
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF in New Haven, Connecticut, and sold for $1.00. In 1971 the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. A firm called Learning Games Associates of Ann Arbor later took over distribution of the game and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. The Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, then became the distributor.

- Reference:

- Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1967

- developer
- Ruderman, Harry D.

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335308

- accession number
- 317891

- catalog number
- 335308

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Queries ‘N Theories: The Game of Science & Language

- Description
- This series of games introduced an approach to the scientific method that is based on linguistics. Queries ‘N Theories was developed by Layman E. Allen, Peter Kugel, and Joan Ross. Allen, of Yale University Law School, and Kugel, of MIT, had begun thinking about this game in 1965 while they were completing the design of the game ON-SETS (MA*335306) and Allen was director of the ALL (Accelerated Learning of Logic) Project that developed mathematical games under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. Ross, of the University of Michigan Mental Health Research Institute, joined the team in 1967 and the game sold from about 1968.

- The set includes 480 small colored chips, twelve mats, and one query marker. The set also includes an instruction book,
*QUERIES ‘N THEORIES: The Game of Science and Language (A Simulation of Scientific Method and Generative Grammars)*, written by Allen, Kugel, and Ross and published by WFF’ N PROOF Publishers in 1971. The term “generative grammar” in the subtitle, which is usually credited to linguist Noam Chomsky, refers to rules that allow one to decide precisely which strings of words form grammatically correct sentences. In Queries ‘N Theories one player, the “native,” secretly defines a language by listing rules to combine chips of various colors, in the way that ordinary languages have rules to describe how to combine differing parts of speech and types of phrases and clauses to produce sentences. The Queries ‘N Theories games have the other players ask the “native” questions in order to determine if a string of chips represents a sentence in that language.

- The kit, which was sold in a yellow soft plastic case, also includes a sheet listing “GAMES for THINKERS” that were available from WFF ‘N PROOF Publishers and a postcard offering a free one-year subscription to the WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletter.

- In 1968 Allen moved from Yale to the University of Michigan with a joint appointment in the Law School and the Mental Health Research Institute, where he continued his work on instructional games. Over the years the name and location of the distributor of the Queries ‘N Theories changed, although the phrase “Games For Thinkers” has been associated with it from before Allen’s move to Ann Arbor. Price lists in the
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania, and sold for $8.75. A firm called Learning Games Associates of Ann Arbor later took over distribution of the game and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. The Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, then became the distributor.

- Reference:

- Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1971

- developer
- Allen, Layman E.

- Ross, Joan

- Kugel, Peter

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335309

- accession number
- 317891

- catalog number
- 335309

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Qwik-Sane: A Topological Game for Thinkers

- Description
- This game was developed by James R. O’Neil after he retired from the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Although there is no trademark for QWIK-SANE: A Topological Game for Thinkers, there are patents in O’Neil’s name for other toys and games. QWIK-SANE, which sold from about 1970, is a solitaire game known as a sliding block puzzle. It is described on page 70 of
*Sliding Piece Puzzles*by Edward Hordern (Oxford: Oxford U Press, 1986). The best known sliding block puzzle is the Fifteen Puzzle, first described in the late nineteenth century.

- The QWIK-SANE game box consists of a tray and thirteen wooden blocks, eleven of which are cubes. One cube has the number 35 written on it, nine cubes have the letters that spell out THINK HARD, and one cube, referred to as “THINKER,” has an drawing resembling Rodin’s
*The Thinker*on it. The remaining blocks are not cubes and each has a word written on one of its longer faces - QWIK-SANE on one, WFF’N PROOF on the other. Instructions for the game are printed on the cardboard game box, which also includes a leaflet listing “GAMES for THINKERS” that were available from WFF ‘N PROOF and a postcard offering a free one-year subscription to the*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletter*.

- At the start of the game the blocks are arranged in the two rows of the tray with the top row showing THINK QWIK-SANE 35 and the second row showing “THINKER” WFF’N PROOF HARD. Before starting, the 35 cube block is removed and “THINKER” is moved from its place at the left of the second row to the former place of the 35 cube at the right of first row. The object of the game is to move “THINKER” back to its original position by sliding blocks in exactly 35 moves of any number of blocks shifted simultaneously.

- The
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletter*was an outgrowth of the ALL (Accelerated Learning of Logic) Project that developed mathematical games under a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. The director of ALL was Layman E. Allen of Yale University Law School, who moved to the University of Michigan with a joint appointment in the Law School and the Mental Health Research Institute in 1968. Over the years the name and location of the distributor of the QWIK-SANE changed. Price lists in the*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF in New Haven, Connecticut, and sold for $1.75. In 1971 the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. A firm called Learning Games Associates of Ann Arborlater took over distribution of the game and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. The Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, then became the distributor.

- Reference:

- Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- developer
- O'Neil, James R.

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335310

- catalog number
- 335310

- accession number
- 317891

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Configurations Game

- Description
- This set of fifteen puzzles was developed by Professor Harold L. Dorwart of Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut. They are explained in a 1969 edition of an instruction book first written by Dorwart in 1967,
*CONFIGURATIONS: Number Puzzles and Patterns For All Ages*(New Haven: Autotelic Instructional Materials Publishers). On the contents page of the instruction book Dorwart writes that puzzles were designed to accompany his book*The Geometry of Incidence*(Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966). However, he notes that the puzzles “are self-contained and can be enjoyed by anyone who is interested in learning why mathematicians are sometimes called `makers of patterns’.”

- The kit was sold in a blue plastic box. It includes five sets of plastic numerals (0 through 9) and ten puzzle boards. Eight blue boards show geometric diagrams labeled with various names of the form n
_{3}, where n is one of the numbers 7 through 10. Two red boards are labeled CONFIGURATIONS Puzzle Board, one containing Columns 1 to 7 and the other columns 8 to 10. The kit also includes the instruction book.

- On page one of the instruction book, one learns that the symbol 7
_{3}represents “a geometrical figure–called a configuration–consisting of seven points and seven lines, with each line containing exactly 3 points of the configuration, and with exactly three lines of the configuration passing through each point.” Any n_{k}configuration can be represented by a table with n columns representing the n lines and k rows, so the k numbers, which come from 1 to n, entered in a column represent the k points on the line.

- The fifteen labels and diagrams shown on the blue boards represent puzzles based on one 7
_{3}configuration, one 8_{3}configuration, three different 9_{3}configurations, and ten different 10_{3}configurations. The actual geometry of these diagrams is not relevant to the puzzles, the object of which is to determine that a particular configuration is possible by making a table for it on the red boards and then using the plastic numerals on a blue board to get a visual representation of it.

- Over the years the name and location of the distributor of Configurations changed, although the phrase “Games For Thinkers” has been associated with it from the start. Price lists in the
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the set of puzzles was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF in New Haven, Connecticut, and sold for $4.50. In 1970 the price was raised to $5.50 and in 1971 the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. A firm called Learning Game Associates of Ann Arbor later took over distribution and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. The Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, then became the distributor.

- Reference:

- Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1969

- developer
- Dorwart, Harold L.

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335311

- catalog number
- 335311

- accession number
- 317891

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Propaganda Game

- Description
- This game, whose full title is THE PROPAGANDA GAME, was developed by Robert W. Allen and Lorne Greene and is based on the book
*Thinking Straighter*by George Henry Moulds (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., 1966). The 1970 edition of the instruction book that accompanies the game was written by Allen, then director of the an academic game project at Nova University in Fort Lauderdale, and Greene, then starring as Ben Cartwright in the long-running TV series*Bonanza*. It was published by Autotelic Instructional Materials Publishers of New Haven. According to the instruction book, which was first published in 1966, the game was developed by Allen and Greene in Burbank, California, where Allen “was responsible for the experimental mathematics and logic programs in the Burbank United School District” (p. 68). Bob Allen had earlier worked with his brother, Layman E. Allen, on the games WFF ‘N PROOF and EQUATIONS (see MA*335302 and MA*335304).

- In
*My Father’s Voice: The Biography of Lorne Greene*(Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, Inc., 2004), Linda Greene Bennett wrote that, as reported by Bob Allen, her father said that “we can develop a game where every time someone looked at the newspaper or listened to a broadcast…they could listen to it with more intelligence.” Bob Allen then “developed a game based on a college course he had once taken about linguistic fallacies” (p. 162). The first version of the game was completed in May 1965 and, therefore, preceded QUERIES ‘N THEORIES, the game developed by Layman Allen and others that introduced the basic ideas of linguistics (see MA*335309).

- The red plastic game box contains the instruction book, four small tokens, twenty orange example cards, twenty white example cards, and four technique cards, each of which has a “prediction dial” with openings that can display a number 0 through 10. In addition, there is a chart naming levels of clear thinking. The negative range, -5 to -1, represents the “ding-a-ling section,” 0 represents “What the Number Implies,” and 14 through 20 represent various levels of thinkers ranging from a “February 29th Thinker,” through an “Occasional Thinker,” and ending as a “CLEAR THINKER!”.There is also a sheet on which Lorne Greene is pictured and is quoted as declaring

In a democratic society such as ours, it is the role of every citizen to make decisions after evaluating many ideas. It is especially important then that a citizen be able to analyze and distinguish between the emotional aura surrounding the idea and the actual content of the idea. It is to this goal of clear thinking that THE PROPAGANDA GAME addresses itself.

- The instruction book defines and gives examples of fifty-five propaganda techniques. A chapter called “Explanation of Techniques” consists of sections devoted to six categories of propaganda technique: self-deception, language, irrelevance, exploitation, form, and maneuver. Within each category of technique there are at least eight different techniques listed. For example, among the ten techniques of exploitation are appeals to pity, flattery, ridicule, prestige, and prejudice. Each of the example cards contains one example for each of the six categories of propaganda technique. Various games are described, all of which are based on players determining which propaganda techniques they think are being used for examples appearing on the example cards. The instruction book has a chapter called “Suggested Answers” that includes explanations of the authors’ choices of the technique used in each of the 240 examples on the cards.

- The simplest version of The Propaganda Games is The Solitaire Game in which a player chooses one of the sets of twenty cards and one of the six categories of techniques. The player is read the example on each card for that category and is asked to predict which technique is used in each example. The player wins if the predictions made agree with that of the authors for at least eighteen of the twenty examples.

- Over the years the name and location of the distributor of The Propaganda Game changed, although the phrase “Games For Thinkers” has been associated with it from the start. Price lists in the
*WFF ‘N PROOF Newsletters*(part of the documentation in accession 317891) indicate that at first the version was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF in New Haven, Connecticut, and sold for $5.50. In 1970 the price was raised to $6.50 and in 1971 the game was distributed by WFF ‘N PROOF through Maple Packers in Turtle Creek, Pennsylvania. A firm called Learning Games Associates of Ann Arbor later took over distribution and donated this example to the Smithsonian in 1975. The Accelerated Learning Foundation of Fairfield, Iowa, then became the distributor.

- Reference:

- Games For Thinkers Website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1970

- developer
- Allen, Robert W.

- Greene, Lorne

- maker
- Learning Games Associates

- ID Number
- MA*335312

- catalog number
- 335312

- accession number
- 317891

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Book of Tables, Useful Information For Business Men, Mechanics And Engineers

- Description
- This pocket-sized book, distributed by the firm of Jones and Laughlins of Pittsburgh, Pa., is particularly designed to assist customers of that manufacturer of “steel, iron, and nails, patent cold-rolled shafting, pulleys, hangers and couplings, &c.” The tables were compiled by mechanical engineer C. C. Briggs and, from 1898, revised by F. L. Garlinghouse. Surviving editions date from what may be the third edition of 1878 through the twentieth edition of 1942.

- This volume is the eleventh edition, published in 1895. It includes some 487 pages of tables, listing such information for engineers as properties of various forms of iron and steel, material on the flow of water through pipes, formulae for the dimensions of small gears, information needed in the design of railroads, moments of inertia, bending moments and safe loads for beams, dimensions of columns, and strengths of bolts.

- More mathematical tables deemed useful concern the circumference and area of circles of differing diameter; square, cubes, square roots, and cube roots of numbers; trigonometric functions; and the logarithms of trigonometric functions. More miscellaneous tables give rates of interest allowed in different states, interest tables, tables for conversions of weights and measures, the time in different places (neglecting the introduction of standard time), the amount of seed required to plant an acre of differing crops, and electoral votes cast in the presidential elections of 1884, 1888, and 1892.

- The book of tables was received with a collection of drawing instruments. It is signed in ink inside the front cover: E. O. Hoffmann (/) 1573 - 30th St. N. W. (/) Washington, D. C. (/) 349 Carondelet St. (/) New Orleans, La. (/) U. S. Light House Service.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1895

- author
- C. C. Briggs, M. E.

- ID Number
- MA*335333

- catalog number
- 335333

- accession number
- 305958

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Albree Trulog Duplex Circular Logarithm Table

- Description
- Aeronautical engineer George Norman Albree (1888–1986) designed airplane components and slide rules. This is an example of his Duplex slide rule, which he intended to be used by grade school children. It is printed on both sides of a cardboard circle and consists of a logarithmic spiral scale for numbers from 10,000 to 32,100 on the front or "A" side and numbers from 31,170 to 100,000 on the back or "B" side. A rotating clear plastic indicator wraps around both sides.

- On both sides, the center of the spiral is marked: ALBREE TRULOG DUPLEX (/) MODEL 18. Inside the fifth ring of the spiral on the front, the instrument is marked: ©1945 (/) G. NORMAN ALBREE (/) BOSTON MASS. The instrument arrived with a plain square paper case, an instruction manual, and a green paper bag. The cover of the manual reads: MANUAL (/) of the (/) TRULOG DUPLEX (/) Precision Pocket Calculator (/) Multiply - Divide - Raise to Any Power - Extract Any Root. The booklet was copyrighted in 1948. The bag is marked: THE (/) TRULOG DUPLEX (/) With Right Hand Instruction System.

- Albree renewed the copyrights for the Albree Trulog Duplex (R560370) and Albree Trulog Spiral (R560371) in 1973. See also MA*335486 and MA*335487.

- References: Timothy Hughes, "The George Norman Albree Papers,"
*New England Ancestors*5, no. 3 (2004): 46, http://www.americanancestors.org/PageDetail.aspx?recordId=134553447; Library of Congress,*Catalog of Copyright Entries, Part 4*, n.s. 40 (1945 index): 287;*Catalog of Copyright Entries: Books: Part 1A*, 3rd ser. 2, no. 1 (1948): 313; Library of Congress Copyright Office,*Renewal Registrations: Works of Art*(July-December 1973): 476; Henry W. Syer and Donovan A. Johnson, "Aids to Teaching,"*Mathematics Teacher*43, no. 5 (1950): 215–221, on 220; accession file.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- after 1948

- maker
- Albree, G. Norman

- ID Number
- MA*335484

- catalog number
- 335484

- accession number
- 321674

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center