Tabulating Equipment
Resources

A collection of tabulating machines in the collections of mathematics, Division of Medicine and Science, National Museum of American History

Resources

A notable collection of punched card equipment is held by International Business Machines in New York State. One of Hollerith’s first machines, exhibited at a world’s fair in Paris in 1889, is at the CNAM in Paris. The references listed below suggest further sources of information.

W. Aspray, ed., Computing before Computers. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1990.

G. D. Austrian, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Pioneer of Information Processing. New York: Columbia University Press: 1982.

M. Campbell-Kelly, ICL: A Business and Technical History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

J. W. Cortada, Before the Computer: IBM, NCR, Burroughs, & Remington Rand & the Industry They Created 1865-1956. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993.

D. A. Grier, When Computers Were Human. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005.

L. Heide, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion 1880-1945. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

A. Norberg, “High-Technology Calculation in the Early 20th Century: Punched Card Machinery in Business and Government,” Technology and Culture, vol. 31 (1990), pp. 753-779.

L. E. Truesdell, The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census 1890-1940. Washington: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1965.

J. Yates, Structuring the Information Age: Life Insurance and Technology in the Twentieth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.