Alice Paul’s "Jailed for Freedom" Pin

Description
In January 1917, discouraged by President Wilson’s continued opposition to the suffrage amendment, Alice Paul, the leader of the National Woman’s Party (NWP) posted pickets at the White House gates—the first people to ever picket the White House. These "silent sentinels" stayed on duty in all weather and in the face of threats, taunts, and physical violence. Using their banners and their quiet courage they asked, "Mr. President How Long Must Women Wait for their Liberty?" and "Mr. President What Will you do for Woman Suffrage?" Hoping to provoke a response, the language on the banners became more inflammatory. They used the president’s own words against him and pointed out the hypocrisy of his leading the country into the First World War to defend freedom while denying it to the women of his own country. Crowds who believed the pickets’ activities were disloyal in a time of war attacked the suffragists and destroyed their banners. In July the police began arresting the pickets for "obstruction of traffic." When they refused to pay fines they were imprisoned. When they went on hunger strikes to demand the rights of political prisoners they were forcibly fed—a painful and invasive procedure. The pickets continued despite the risk. Paul had endured such treatment while she was in England. Although she knew what lay ahead and that she, as the organizer of the picketing, would receive a harsher sentence, she insisted on taking her place on the picket line. She was arrested in October. While in jail she was forcibly fed and threatened with commitment to an insane asylum. Reports of the long sentences, abuse, and the courage of the suffragists became public and all prisoners were released in November.
In a December ceremony the imprisoned suffragists were awarded with small silver pins in the shape of prison doors with heart-shaped locks. The "jailed for freedom" pins were designed by Nina Allender. This pin was awarded to Alice Paul.
The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution enfranchising women was ratified in August 1920.
Location
Currently not on view
Object Name
pin
date made
1917
presented by
National Woman's Party
recipient
Paul, Alice
Physical Description
metal (overall material)
silver (overall color)
Measurements
average spatial: 1 1/2 in x 1 in x 1/4 in; 3.81 cm x 2.54 cm x .635 cm
ID Number
1987.0165.025
catalog number
1987.0165.025
accession number
1987.0165
subject
Government, Politics, and Reform
Women's Suffrage
Equal Rights Amendment
Voting Rights
Woman Suffrage
See more items in
Political History: Political History, Women's History Collection
Woman Suffrage
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

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