United States, New York Gold Pattern, 1785 (Immune Columbia)

Produced at George Wyon's private mint, Birmingham, England. Obverse: Seated figure of Columbia with scales of justice and a Liberty cap, date below. Reverse: All-seeing Eye in a glory with stars, CONSTELLATIO NOVA around. This pattern accompanied a proposed contract coinage to be made in England and shipped to America. This version never went any farther, perhaps in part because the obverse die for this pattern contained a major blunder: the first word should have been IMMUNIS, not IMMUNE. A few pieces were struck in copper, and this one (using an English guinea as a blank) in gold. Such contract proposals continued through the early 1790s, but they never bore fruit. Congress concluded that it was simply too dangerous to entrust producing America's money to a foreign source.
Currently not on view
Object Name
date made
Wyon III, George
obverse engraver
Wyon III, George
reverse engraver
Wyon III, George
Physical Description
gold (overall metal)
0 (overall die axis)
0 (overall die axis measurement)
struck (overall production method)
overall: .3 cm x 2.6 cm; 1/8 in x 1 1/32 in
place of issue
United States: New York
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Coins, Currency and Medals
See more items in
Armed Forces History: National Numismatic Collection
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Credit Line
Government Transfer: US DOTT, USM
Publication title
Glossary of Coins and Currency Terms
Publication URL
Additional Media

Visitor Comments

Add a comment about this object

**Please read before submitting the form**

Have a comment or question about this object to share with the community? Please use the form below. Selected comments will appear on this page and may receive a museum response (but we can't promise). Please note that we generally cannot answer questions about the history, rarity, or value of your personal artifacts.

Have a question about anything else, or would you prefer a personal response? Please visit our FAQ or contact page.

Personal information will not be shared or result in unsolicited e-mail. See our privacy policy.

Enter the characters shown in the image.