United States, New York Gold Pattern, 1785 (Immune Columbia)

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Produced at George Wyon's private mint, Birmingham, England. Obverse: Seated figure of Columbia with scales of justice and a Liberty cap, date below. Reverse: All-seeing Eye in a glory with stars, CONSTELLATIO NOVA around. This pattern accompanied a proposed contract coinage to be made in England and shipped to America. This version never went any farther, perhaps in part because the obverse die for this pattern contained a major blunder: the first word should have been IMMUNIS, not IMMUNE. A few pieces were struck in copper, and this one (using an English guinea as a blank) in gold. Such contract proposals continued through the early 1790s, but they never bore fruit. Congress concluded that it was simply too dangerous to entrust producing America's money to a foreign source.
Currently not on view
date made
Wyon III, George
obverse engraver
Wyon III, George
reverse engraver
Wyon III, George
place of issue
United States: New York
Physical Description
gold (overall metal)
0 (overall die axis)
0 (overall die axis measurement)
struck (overall production method)
overall: .3 cm x 2.6 cm; 1/8 in x 1 1/32 in
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Credit Line
Government Transfer: US DOTT, USM
See more items in
Work and Industry: National Numismatic Collection
Coins, Currency and Medals
Data Source
National Museum of American History


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