"Tierra o Muerte"

Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and the annexation of Texas, the land claims of many Mexican families were not respected, either by the new English-speaking settlers or by the U.S. government. Dispossession from family- and community-owned lands dealt a severe economic blow to the livelihood of generations of Mexican Americans. The issue of land evokes especially bitter memories in New Mexico. In 1967, the year this poster was made with the slogan Tierra o Muerte, meaning Land or Death, a Hispanic land rights organization called La Alianza, led by Reies López Tijerina, raided the Rio Arriba County courthouse in Tierra Amarilla, New Mexico. In addition to reclaiming land from the government of New Mexico, the goals of the raid were to free imprisoned Alianza members and to arrest the district attorney who was prosecuting them as communists and outside agitators. The raid on the courthouse was ultimately unsuccessful and Tijerina served time in a federal prison. Although seen by some as a divisive figure, Reies López Tijerina was as recognizable as Cesar Chavez to many Chicano activists of the late 1960s. Mirroring similar political tensions in the African American community, Chicano civil rights activists were torn between leaders such as Chavez, who advocated nonviolence, and leaders like Tijerina, whose political strategy was decidedly more militant.
Currently not on view
Object Name
sign, protest
Date made
Physical Description
paper (overall material)
ink (overall material)
white (overall color)
red (overall color)
silk-screened (overall production method/technique)
average spatial: 11 in x 8 1/2 in; 27.94 cm x 21.59 cm
Place Made
United States: New Mexico, Tierra Amarilla, Tierra Amarilla area
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Civil Rights Movement
Government, Politics, and Reform
Cultures & Communities
Mexican America
Land Protest Movement Led by Tijerina
See more items in
Home and Community Life: Ethnic
Mexican America
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Title (Spanish)
"Tierra o Muerte"

Visitor Comments

3/21/2016 3:29:17 PM
Patricia Ramirez
Before General Tijerina - Tierra o Muerte! The Mexican Revolution - Tierra y libertad (Land & Liberty) is also part of this history beginning with los Zapatistias -along another resistance with Ricardo Flores-Magon called the "War of Liberation of Baja California" under the Partido Liberal de Mexico (Mesican Liberal Party ) -Thompson 1930-32, Chapter 8,16.
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