Independence Fire Company Fire Hat

Description
Beginning in the late 18th century, some volunteer fire fighters began to wear hats painted with their company’s name to identify themselves at chaotic fire scenes. During the 19th century, these fire hats became more ornate, as portraits of historical figures, patriotic scenes, allegorical images, or company icons were painted alongside the company’s name, motto, or founding date. Made of pressed felt, these “stove-pipe” hats were primarily used in Philadelphia, but other nearby cities such as Baltimore and Washington adopted them as well. Fire hats were personal items with the owner’s initials often painted on the top of the hat. While these hats were worn at fires, they are more colloquially known as “parade hats.” Fire companies commonly marched in the many parades of the period and these ornate hats contributed to the visual culture of their day. These distinguishing features in a company’s regalia often proclaimed the members’ cultural and political identity as well as their position on contested topics such as work, religion and immigration.
This hat is painted orange/red overall, with a central portrait of Thomas Jefferson set inside a golden circular frame. The portrait is flanked by two dark blue banners that read “INDEPENDENCE/FIRE COMPANY” in gold paint. The date “1847” is painted in gold on the back of the hat between two gold lines. The owner’s initials “C.S.” are painted in gold on the crown of the hat. This hat was likely used by a member of the Independence Fire Company, located in the Callowhill area of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Location
Currently not on view
date made
1810-1860
associated
Independence Fire Company
depicted
Jefferson, Thomas
maker
unknown
place made
United States
Physical Description
fabric, pressed felt (overall material)
paint (overall material)
painted (overall production method/technique)
Measurements
overall: 5 in x 13 1/2 in x 12 in; 12.7 cm x 34.29 cm x 30.48 cm
ID Number
2005.0233.0111
catalog number
2005.0233.0111
accession number
2005.0233
Credit Line
Gift of CIGNA Museum and Art Collection
subject
Fire Fighting
Fraternal Associations
See more items in
Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement
Cultures & Communities
Work
Clothing & Accessories
Art
Fire Hats
Firefighting Collection
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

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