Columbia Hose Company Fire Hat

Description
Beginning in the late 18th century, some volunteer fire fighters began to wear hats painted with their company’s name to identify themselves at chaotic fire scenes. During the 19th century, these fire hats became more ornate, as portraits of historical figures, patriotic scenes, allegorical images, or company icons were painted alongside the company’s name, motto, or founding date. Made of pressed felt, these “stove-pipe” hats were primarily used in Philadelphia, but other nearby cities such as Baltimore and Washington adopted them as well. Fire hats were personal items with the owner’s initials often painted on the top of the hat. While these hats were worn at fires, they are more colloquially known as “parade hats.” Fire companies commonly marched in the many parades of the period and these ornate hats contributed to the visual culture of their day. These distinguishing features in a company’s regalia often proclaimed the members’ cultural and political identity as well as their position on contested topics such as work, religion and immigration.
This hat was used in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the first half of the 19th century. The hat is painted light blue, with an image of a spread-winged eagle in front of a sunburst gripping a red banner in its talons that reads “COLUMBIA HOSE COMPANY” in gold. The company’s initials “CHC” (Columbia Hose Company) are painted in gold calligraphic script on the back of the hat. The owner’s initials “J.M.I.” are painted in gold on the crown of the hat. The Columbia Hose Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was founded in 1806, on the block of 7th and Cherry Streets. The bald eagle was adopted by the Continental Congress as the national symbol of the United States in 1782 and was a frequently used icon among early American volunteer fire departments.
Location
Currently not on view
Object Name
hat, fire
date made
1810-1860
associated
Columbia Hose Company
maker
unknown
Physical Description
painted (overall production method/technique)
fabric, pressed felt (overall material)
red (underbrim; edge; trim color)
gold (decoration color)
paint (overall material)
blue (overall color)
Measurements
overall: 6 1/2 in x 13 1/8 in x 14 5/8 in; 16.51 cm x 33.3375 cm x 37.1475 cm
place made
United States: Pennsylvania, Philadelphia
ID Number
2005.0233.0030
catalog number
2005.0233.0030
accession number
2005.0233
subject
Patriotism and Patriotic Symbols
Fire Fighting
Fraternal Associations
See more items in
Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement
Cultures & Communities
Work
Clothing & Accessories
Art
Fire Hats
Firefighting Collection
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

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