Pennsylvania Fire Company Fire Hat

Beginning in the late 18th century, some volunteer fire fighters began to wear hats painted with their company’s name to identify themselves at chaotic fire scenes. During the 19th century, these fire hats became more ornate, as portraits of historical figures, patriotic scenes, allegorical images, or company icons were painted alongside the company’s name, motto, or founding date. Made of pressed felt, these “stove-pipe” hats were primarily used in Philadelphia, but other nearby cities such as Baltimore and Washington adopted them as well. Fire hats were personal items with the owner’s initials often painted on the top of the hat. While these hats were worn at fires, they are more colloquially known as “parade hats.” Fire companies commonly marched in the many parades of the period and these ornate hats contributed to the visual culture of their day. These distinguishing features in a company’s regalia often proclaimed the members’ cultural and political identity as well as their position on contested topics such as work, religion and immigration.
This hat was used in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during the first half of the 19th century. The hat is painted black overall, with a central painting of the coat of arms of Pennsylvania. Within the central shield are images of a ship, plow, and three sheaves of wheat, representing commerce, labor, and the importance of agriculture respectively. The shield is flanked by two rearing white horses. A spread-wing eagle stands on top of the shield and beneath the shield is a red banner with gold trim bearing the text “VIRTUE LIBERTY INDEPENDENCE” in gold. The back of the hat has the text “PENNSYLVANIA” arching over the owner’s initials “J.B.” in gold paint. The Pennsylvania Fire Company was established in Philadelphia in 1806.
Currently not on view
Object Name
hat, fire
date made
Pennsylvania Volunteer Fire Company
Physical Description
fabric, pressed felt (overall material)
painted (overall production method/technique)
paint (overall material)
overall: 7 in x 14 1/2 in x 15 1/8 in; 17.78 cm x 36.83 cm x 38.4175 cm
place made
United States
United States: Pennsylvania
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Fire Fighting
Cultures & Communities
Clothing & Accessories
Fraternal Associations
Firefighting Collection
Fire Hats
See more items in
Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement
Fire Hats
Firefighting Collection
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Credit Line
Gift of CIGNA Museum and Art Collection
McCosker, M.J.. The Historical Collection of the Insurance Company of North America
Additional Media

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