Fire Helmet, "Friendship"

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The traditional American leather firefighter’s helmet with its distinctive long rear brim, frontpiece, and crest adornment was first developed around 1821-1836 in New York City. Henry T. Gratacap, a New York City luggage maker by trade, is often credited as the developer of this style of fire helmet. Gratacap created a specially treated leather helmet with a segmented “comb” design that led to unparalleled durability and strength. The elongated rear brim (also known as a duckbill or beavertail) and frontpiece were 19th century innovations that remain the most identifiable feature of firefighter’s helmets. The body of the helmet was primarily designed to deflect falling debris, the rear brim prevented water from running down firefighters’ backs, and their sturdy crowns could aid, if necessary, in breaking windows.
This leather fire helmet was made around 1820. The helmet has eight combs and is painted black on the outside with a red underbrim. Traces of a paper maker’s label can be found inside the hat’s crown with the word “CAPS FIRE SUPPLIERS” legible. The blue frontpiece has a white number “1” in the center, with a gold scalloped top that reads “FRIENDSHIP.”
Currently not on view
date made
ca 1820
Fire Association
Physical Description
leather (overall material)
black (overall color)
overall: 15 in x 13 1/4 in x 7 1/2 in; 38.1 cm x 33.655 cm x 19.05 cm
ID Number
accession number
catalog number
Credit Line
Gift of CIGNA Museum and Art collection
Fire Fighting
See more items in
Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement
Clothing & Accessories
Fire Helmets
Firefighting Collection
Data Source
National Museum of American History


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