Fire Helmet, "Empire Hook & Ladder Co. No. 1"

The traditional American leather firefighter’s helmet with its distinctive long rear brim, frontpiece, and crest adornment was first developed around 1821-1836 in New York City. Henry T. Gratacap, a New York City luggage maker by trade, is often credited as the developer of this style of fire helmet. Gratacap created a specially treated leather helmet with a segmented “comb” design that led to unparalleled durability and strength. The elongated rear brim (also known as a duckbill or beavertail) and frontpiece were 19th century innovations that remain the most identifiable feature of firefighter’s helmets. The body of the helmet was primarily designed to deflect falling debris, the rear brim prevented water from running down firefighters’ backs, and their sturdy crowns could aid, if necessary, in breaking windows.
This leather fire helmet was manufactured by John H. Migeod of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the late 19th century. The helmet has eight combs and is painted white, which has yellowed and is flaking in several areas. A metal sea horse figure serves as a frontpiece holder. The leather frontpiece is painted tan, with a red “1” and crossed hook and ladder in the center and the words “EMPIRE” on a banner at the top of the frontpiece. A paper name tag inside of the helmet reads “J. Byrned.”
Currently not on view
Object Name
helmet, fire
date made
late 19th century
Migeod Company
Physical Description
leather (overall material)
overall: 8 3/4 in x 11 1/2 in x 14 1/2 in; 22.225 cm x 29.21 cm x 36.83 cm
place made
United States
ID Number
accession number
catalog number
Clothing & Accessories
Firefighting Collection
Fire Helmets
See more items in
Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement
Fire Helmets
Firefighting Collection
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Credit Line
Gift of CIGNA Museum and Art Collection
Additional Media

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