Diverging Tube

This hydraulic instrument came from the Proprietors of the Locks and Canals in Lowell, Mass., and was probably used by the resident engineer, James B. Francis. Francis did not mention devices of this sort in the 1855 or 1868 editions of his Lowell Hydraulic Experiments, but he discussed them at length in the 1871 edition of this important book.
This example is essentially a cast-iron tube that flares at one end. It is 67.5 inches long. The bell is 18 inches wide.
Ref: “Experiments on the Flow of Water through Submerged Orifices and Diverging Tubes” in James B. Francis, Lowell Hydraulic Experiments (New York, 1871).
Object Name
diverging tube
date made
after 1850
overall: 67 1/2 in; 171.45 cm
ID Number
accession number
catalog number
See more items in
Medicine and Science: Physical Sciences
Measuring & Mapping
Water Currents
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center


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