Hydridizers Vial of Ethanol

This vial of 75% ethanol was used by workers at the Mars Center for Cocoa Science in Itajuipe, Bahia, Brazil in their cacao hybridization efforts. While sequencing the cacao genome provided scientists with a road map to understanding cacao and accelerated testing techniques, scientists still bred new cultivars of cacao through traditional techniques of hand pollination.
Cacao sustainability was recognized as an issue in 1998 when Mars Chief Agricultural Officer, Howard-Yana Shapiro, broached the idea of sequencing the cacao genome to give cacao researchers the necessary tools to help it become a modern crop. In 2008 a collaboration between Mars Inc., the United States Department of Agriculture, IBM, and several universities embarked on an effort to sequence the genome of the cacao to help breed improved hybridized plants to reduce crop loss and increase arable land for farmers. In 2010 the results were published and released to the public without patent restriction.
Physical Description
plastic (vial material)
glass (vial material)
plastic (cap material)
black (cap color)
overall: 2 in x 7/8 in; 5.08 cm x 2.2225 cm
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Credit Line
Gift of MARS Inc.
See more items in
Work and Industry: Agriculture
Industry & Manufacturing
American Enterprise
American Enterprise
Exhibition Location
National Museum of American History
Data Source
National Museum of American History


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