Lewis & Briggs FourSided Gauger's Slide Rule
 Description

This is an eightinch, foursided boxwood slide rule used for measuring and taxing barrels of liquid. On one end of the rule, the slides on each side have been labeled with the four Roman numerals, I, II, III, and IV. On side I, the base has logarithmic scales that run from 1 to 8 and from 8 to 100. It is labeled Seg S^{t} (Segments Standing) at the top left and SS at the bottom right. The slide has two identical C scales, logarithmically divided from 1 to 9. This side was used to estimate the volume of a barrel that was standing vertically and partially filled. The back of the slide lists calculating factors used in computing taxes on various liquors. For instance, the duty on one barrel of vinegar was equivalent to the duty on 7.56 barrels of small beer.

On side II, the base has logarithmic scales that run from 0 to 4 and from 4 to 100. The bottom right corner is labeled SL (Segments Lying) for estimating the volume of a partially filled barrel lying on its side. The slide has two identical B scales, logarithmically divided from 1 to 10. The point 231 is marked W, showing the number of cubic inches in a wine gallon, and pi (314) is marked with a C. The back of the slide has a table of gauge points for converting between volumes in cubic inches and numbers of gallons for substances in square or circular containers.

On side III, the base has an A scale, logarithmically divided from 1 to 10, and an MD (Malt Depth) scale that runs logarithmically in the opposite direction from somewhat less than 3 to 20. Point 2150 on the A scale is marked MB, for the number of cubic inches in a malt bushel, and point 282 is marked A, for the number of cubic inches in an ale gallon. The slide has two identical B scales, logarithmically divided from 1 to 9. The back of the slide has a scale of inches, a scale labeled Spheroid, and a scale labeled 2^{d} Variety. These scales are for determining the diameters of two different shapes of barrels. Underneath the slide is marked: LEWIS & BRIGGS : Makers. N^{o}. 52. BOW. LANE. Cheapside. LONDON.

On side IV, the base has a D scale, logarithmically divided from 1 to 3.2 and from 3.2 to 10. Point 17.15 is marked WG, for the diameter in inches of a cylinder that contains one gallon of wine when filled to a depth of one inch. Point 18.95 is marked AG for the diameter of a cylinder containing one gallon of ale. Point 46.3 is marked MS, for the side of a square vessel that contains a solid bushel per inch of depth, and point 52.32 is marked MR, for the side of a square vessel that contains a malt bushel per inch of depth.

The slide has two identical C scales, logarithmically divided from 1 to 10. The back of the slide has a table of divisors for converting between volumes in cubic inches and numbers of gallons for substances in square or circular containers. The numbers in this table are squares of the gauge points in the table on the back of the slide on side II. Underneath the slide is marked: Will^{m}. Wright : April. 30. 1795.

According to Gloria Clifton, the firm of Lewis & Briggs operated in London from at least 1795 to 1799. The Smithsonian acquired this object in 1961.

References: Colin Barnes, "The Customs and Excise Gauging Slide Rule," Journal of the Oughtred Society 4, no. 2 (1995): 53–57; Ron Manley, "Gauging," http://www.sliderules.info/atoz/gauging.htm; Gloria Clifton, Directory of British Scientific Instrument Makers (London: National Maritime Museum, 1995), 167.
 Location

Currently not on view

Currently not on view

Currently not on view
 date made

1795
 maker

Lewis & Briggs
 place made

United Kingdom: England, London
 Physical Description

boxwood (overall material)
 Measurements

overall: 2 cm x 23 cm x 2.5 cm; 25/32 in x 9 1/16 in x 31/32 in

overall: 2 cm x 23 cm x 2.5 cm; 13/16 in x 9 1/16 in x in
 ID Number

MA.319510
 catalog number

319510
 accession number

239015
 subject

Mathematics

Rule, Calculating

Taxes
 See more items in

Medicine and Science: Mathematics

Science & Mathematics

Slide Rules
 Data Source

National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center