Scrimshaw Sperm Whale’s Tooth, Mid-19th Century

One side of this sperm whale tooth is dominated by a Turk’s Cap lily growing out of a striped footed urn. On either side is a single-stem red rose bush in full bloom. The flowers of both types of plants are infilled with red pigment, now faded; the leaves, stems and urn are in black pigment. The back side of the tooth is polished but undecorated. The presence of a large number of shallow pinpricks throughout the composition on the surface of the tooth indicates that an illustration was pasted on the polished surface and then outlined with a pin.
Scrimshaw began in the late 18th or early 19th century as the art of carving whale bone and ivory aboard whale ships. The crew on whalers had plenty of leisure time between sighting and chasing whales, and the hard parts of whales were readily available on voyages that could last up to four years.
In its simplest form, a tooth was removed from the lower jaw of a sperm whale and the surface was prepared by scraping and sanding until it was smooth. The easiest way to begin an etching was to smooth a print over the tooth, prick the outline of the image with a needle and then “connect-the-dots” once the paper was removed. This allowed even unskilled craftsmen to create fine carvings. Some sailors were skilled enough to etch their drawings freehand. After the lines were finished, they were filled in with lamp black or sometimes colored pigments.
Scrimshaw could be decorative, like simple sperm whale teeth, or they could be useful, as in ivory napkin rings, corset busks (stiffeners), swifts for winding yarn or pie crimpers. The sailor’s hand-carved scrimshaw was then given to loved ones back on shore as souvenirs of the hard and lonely life aboard long and dangerous voyages.
Currently not on view
Object Name
tooth, whale
scrimshaw tooth, whale
Physical Description
scrimshaw (overall production method/technique)
tooth, ivory (overall material)
overall: 5 1/2 in x 2 5/16 in x 1 3/16 in; 13.97 cm x 5.87375 cm x 3.01625 cm
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Cultures & Communities
See more items in
Work and Industry: Maritime
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Credit Line
Gift of Frederic A. Delano
Additional Media

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