Notice of Justice

Physical Description
Handwriting on paper attached to bamboo.
Specific History
Emilio Aguinaldo’s address to the Philippine people, bearing his seal. The paper is attached to a woven bamboo board. It was found one morning hanging on a fence in the town of Bugasou, Panay, Philippine Islands.
General History
Emilio Aguinaldo was a leader of the 1896 Philippine revolt against Spain. As a result of the peace treaty which ended the fighting, he was exiled to Hong Kong in exchange for money, which he used to purchase weapons to continue the rebellion. When the United States declared war on Spain in 1898, Aguinaldo saw the opportunity to further the cause of Philippine independence by allying with the Americans. After peace was made with Spain, he declared the Philippines independent and proclaimed himself president. The United States refused to recognize the Philippine Republic, and Aguinaldo as its president; in 1899, he declared war on the occupying forces. After he was captured by the Americans in 1901, he swore his allegiance to the United States and subsequently withdrew from public life.
Currently not on view
Object Name
Date made
ca 1900
associated date
associated person
Aguinaldo, Emilio
Physical Description
paper (overall material)
bamboo (overall material)
overall: 17 1/2 in x 14 in x 1/2 in; 44.45 cm x 35.56 cm x 1.27 cm
Place Made
Pilipinas: Panay, Bugasou
Associated Place
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Philippine Insurrection
The Emergence of Modern America
See more items in
Armed Forces History: Armed Forces History, Military
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

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