Meissen red stoneware tankard

Description
MARKS: None.
PURCHASED FROM: William H. Lautz, New York, 1961.
This tankard is from the Smithsonian’s Hans Syz Collection of Meissen Porcelain. Dr. Syz (1894-1991) began his collection in the early years of World War II, when he purchased eighteenth-century Meissen table wares from the Art Exchange run by the New York collector and dealer Adolf Beckhardt (1889-1962). Dr. Syz, a Swiss immigrant to the United States, collected Meissen porcelain while engaged in a professional career in psychiatry and the research of human behavior. He believed that cultural artifacts have an important role to play in enhancing our awareness and understanding of human creativity and its communication among peoples. His collection grew to represent this conviction.
The invention of Meissen porcelain, declared over three hundred years ago early in 1709, was a collective achievement that represents an early modern precursor to industrial chemistry and materials science. The porcelains we see in our museum collections, made in the small town of Meissen in Germany, were the result of an intense period of empirical research. Generally associated with artistic achievement of a high order, Meissen porcelain was also a technological achievement in the development of inorganic, non-metallic materials.
The tankard is made in red stoneware, a very hard and dense type of ceramic similar in appearance to the Chinese Yixing ceramics which inspired their imitation at Meissen. Red stoneware, enriched with iron oxides, preceded porcelain in the Dresden laboratory where physicist, mathematician, and philosopher, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus (1651-1708) and alchemist Johann Friedrich Böttger (1682-1719) experimented with raw materials fused by solar energy amplified through a burning glass. Success in red stoneware was an important step towards development of white porcelain.
This object is unfinished, remaining unpolished and without silver mountings, although the holes for their attachment can be seen on the handle and cover. It is a similar model to ID Number 61.68, but with a different handle.
Tankards originated in beer-drinking countries, and in early modern Europe the middle-class beer drinker had stoneware and tin-glazed tankards with tin or pewter mountings that were rich in various regional styles. Pewter and glass tankards were also common. Goldsmiths produced luxury vessels for the ruling class, and the Meissen red stoneware tankards were transitional objects emulating vessels made from silver, ruby glass, cut and polished semi-precious stones mounted with gold and silver gilt.
On Meissen's red stoneware see Pietsch, U., 2011, Early Meissen Porcelain: The Wark Collection at the Cummer Museum of Art and Gardens, pp.15-19.
On Yixing stoneware see Lo, K.S., 1986, The Stoneware of Yixing from the Ming Period to the Present Day.
Hans Syz, J. Jefferson Miller II, Rainer Rückert, 1979, Catalogue of the Hans Syz Collection: Meissen Porcelain and Hausmalerei, pp.18-19.
Location
Currently not on view
date made
1710-1715
maker
Meissen Manufactory
place made
Deutschland: Sachsen, Meissen
Physical Description
ceramic, stoneware, refined (overall material)
monochrome, rust (overall surface decoration color name)
Measurements
overall: 7 1/2 in; 19.05 cm
ID Number
CE.75.183ab
catalog number
75.183ab
collector/donor number
1173
accession number
319073
Credit Line
Hans C. Syz Collection
See more items in
Home and Community Life: Ceramics and Glass
Domestic Furnishings
Art
The Hans C. Syz Collection
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

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