Batchelder-Bushnell Steam Engine Indicator

Batchelder and Bushnell manufactured this steam engine indicator. It consists of a brass piston and cylinder. It has a cantilever spring enclosed in a tube, with the stiffness changed by length adjustment and a scale on the side of the tube. It has a large drum with coil spring and single record. It has a large brass stylus.
An engine indicator is an instrument for graphically recording the pressure versus piston displacement through an engine stroke cycle. Engineers use the resulting diagram to check the design and performance of the engine.
A mechanical indicator consists of a piston, spring, stylus, and recording system. The gas pressure of the cylinder deflects the piston and pushes against the spring, creating a linear relationship between the gas pressure and the deflection of the piston against the spring. The deflection is recorded by the stylus on a rotating drum that is connected to the piston. Most indicators incorporate a mechanical linkage to amplify the movement of the piston to increase the scale of the record.
When the ratio of the frequency of the pressure variation to the natural frequency of the system is small, then the dynamic deflection is equal to the static deflection. To design a system with a high natural frequency, the mass of the piston, spring, stylus, and mechanical linkage must be small, but the stiffness of the spring must be high. The indicator is subjected to high temperatures and pressures and rapid oscillations, imposing a limitation on the reduction in mass. Too stiff a spring will result in a small displacement of the indicator piston and a record too small to measure with accuracy. Multiplication of the displacement will introduce mechanical ad dynamic errors.
The parameters of the problem for designing an accurate and trouble free recorder are such that there is no easy or simple solution. Studying the variety of indicators in the collection shows how different inventors made different compromises in their designs.
Currently not on view
Object Name
indicator, steam engine
date made
ca 1904
John S. Bushnell Company
overall: 8 in x 6 3/8 in x 2 1/2 in; 20.32 cm x 16.1925 cm x 6.35 cm
place made
United States: Connecticut
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Engineering, Building, and Architecture
Industry & Manufacturing
See more items in
Work and Industry: Mechanical and Civil Engineering
Data Source
National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center
Credit Line
Gift of Yale University, Mason Laboratory, New Haven, Connecticut

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