#
Science & Mathematics

The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.

The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.

"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 2182 items.

Page 2 of 219

## Painting -

*One Surface and One Edge (Möbius)*- Description
- Most geometric surfaces have a distinct inside and outside. This painting shows one that doesn’t. Take a strip of material, give it a half-twist, and attach the ends together. The result is a band with only one surface and one edge. Mathematicians began to explore such surfaces in the nineteenth century. In 1858 German astronomer and mathematician August Ferdinand Möbius (1790–1868), who had studied theoretical astronomy under Carl Friedrich Gauss at the University of Goettingen, discovered the one-sided surface shown in the painting. It has come to be known by his name. As often happens in the history of mathematics, another scholar, Johann Benedict Listing, had found the same result a few months earlier. Listing did not publish his work until 1861.

- If one attaches the ends of a strip of paper without a half twist, the resulting figure is a cylinder. The cylinder has two sides such that one can paint the outside surface red and the inside surface green. If you try to paint the outside surface of a Möbius band red you will paint the entire band red without crossing an edge. Similarly, if you try to paint the inside surface of a Möbius band green you will paint the entire surface green. A cylinder has an upper edge and a lower edge. However, if you start at a point on the edge of a Möbius band you will trace out its entire edge and return to the point at which you began. Since Möbius's time, mathematicians have discovered and explored many other one-sided surfaces.

- This painting, #34 in the series, was executed in oil on masonite and is signed: CJ65. The strip is shown in three shades of gray based on the figure’s position. The shades of gray, especially the lightest shade, are striking against the rose-colored background, and this contrast allows the viewer to focus on the properties of the Möbius band. The painting has a wooden frame.

- Crockett Johnson's painting is similar to illustrations in James R. Newman's
*The World of Mathematics*(1956), p. 596. However, the figures are not annotated in the artist's copy of the book.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1965

- referenced
- Moebius, August Ferdinand

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.23

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.23

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Simple Equation (Descartes)*- Description
- In a pathbreaking book
*La Géométrie*, René Descartes (1596–1650) described how to perform algebraic operations using geometric methods. One such explanation is the subject of this Crockett Johnson painting. More specifically, Descartes described geometrical methods for finding the roots of simple polynomials. He wrote (as translated from the original French): "Finally, if I have z² = az -b², I make NL equal to (1/2)a and LM equal to b as before: then, instead of joining the points M and N, I draw MQR parallel to LN, and with N as center describe a circle through L cutting MQR in the points Q and R; then z, the line sought, is either MQ or MR, for in this way it can be expressed in two ways, namely: z = (1/2)a + √((1/4)a² - b²) and z = (1/2)a - √((1/4)a² - b²)."

- To verify that z = MR is a solution to the equation z²= az - b², note that the square of the length of the tangent ML equals the product of the two line segments MQ and MR. As ML is defined to equal b, its square is b squared. The length of MR is z, and the length of MQ is the difference between the diameter of the circle (length a) and the segment MR, that is to say (a – z) . Hence b squared equals z (a – z) which, on rearrangement of terms, gives the result desired.

- Crockett Johnson's painting directly imitates Descartes's figure found in Book I of
*La Géométrie*. A translation of part of Book I is found in the artist’s copy of James R. Newman's*The World of Mathematics*. The figure on page 250 is annotated.

- This oil or acrylic painting on masonite is #36 in the series. It was completed in 1966 and is signed: CJ66. It has a wooden frame.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1966

- referenced
- Descartes, Rene

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.24

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.24

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Multiplication through Imaginary Numbers (Gauss)*- Description
- This painting was inspired by ideas of Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855). In his 1797 doctoral thesis, Gauss proved what is now called the fundamental theorem of algebra. He showed that every polynomial with real coefficients must have at least one real or complex root. A complex number has the form a+bi, where a and b are real numbers and i represents the square root of negative one. The French mathematician René Descartes (1596–1650) called such numbers "imaginary", which explains the reference in the title. Gauss demonstrated that, just as real numbers can be represented by points on a coordinate line, complex numbers can be represented by points in the coordinate plane.

- The construction of this painting echoes a figure in an article on Gauss by Eric Temple Bell in J. R. Newman's
*The World of Mathematics*that illustrates the representation of points on a plane. This book was in Crockett Johnson's library, and the figure is annotated.

- In Bell's figure, real numbers c and -c are plotted on the x axis, the imaginary numbers ci and -ci are plotted on the y axis, and the complex number a+bi is shown in the first quadrant. The figure is meant to show that if a complex number a+bi is multiplied by the imaginary number i then the product is a complex number on the same circle but rotated ninety degrees counterclockwise. That is, i(a+bi) = ai+bi² = -b+ai. Thus, this complex number lies in the second quadrant. If this process is repeated the next product is -a-bi, which lies in the third quadrant. It is unknown why Johnson did not illustrate the fourth product.

- The colors of opposite quadrants of the painting are related. Those in quadrant three echo those of quadrant one and those of quadrant four echo those of quadrant two.This oil painting is #40 in the series. It is signed: CJ67.

- References:

- James R. Newman,
*The World of Mathematics*(1956), p. 308. This volume was in Crockett Johnson's library. The figure on this page is annotated.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1967

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.28

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.28

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Squared Circle*- Description
- This oil painting on pressed wood, #52 in the series, shows an original construction of Crockett Johnson. He executed this work in 1968, three years after he began creating mathematical paintings. It is evident that the artist was very proud of this construction because he drew four paintings dealing with the problem of squaring the circle. The construction was part of Crockett Johnson's first original mathematical work, published in
*The Mathematical Gazette*in early 1970. A diagram relating to the painting was published there.

- To "square a circle," mathematically speaking, is to construct a square whose area is equal to that of a given circle using only a straightedge (an unmarked ruler) and a compass. It is an ancient problem dating from the time of Euclid and is one of three problems that eluded Greek geometers and continued to elude mathematicians for 2,000 years. In 1880, the German mathematician Ferdinand von Lindermann showed that squaring a circle in this way is impossible - pi is a transcendental number. Because this proof is complicated and difficult to understand, the problem of squaring a circle continues to attract amateur mathematicians like Crockett Johnson. Although he ultimately understood that the circle cannot be squared with a straightedge and compass, he managed to construct an approximate squaring.

- Crockett Johnson began his construction with a circle of radius one. In this circle he inscribed a square. Therefore, in the figure, AO=OB=1 and OC=BC=√(2) / 2. AC=AO+OC=1 + √(2) / 2 and AB=√(AC² + BC²) = &#*&#);(2+√(2)). Crockett Johnson let N be the midpoint of OT and constructed KN parallel to AC. K is thus the midpoint of AB, and KN=AO - (AC)/2=(2-&#*&#);(2)) / 4. Next, he let P be the midpoint of OG, and he drew KP, which intersects AO at X. Crockett Johnson then computed NP=NO+OP=(√(2))/4+(1/2). Triangle POX is similar to triangle PNK, so XO/OP=KN/NP. From this equality it follows that XO=(3-2√(2))/2.

- Also, AX=AO-XO=(2√(2)-1)/2 and XC=XO+OC=(3-√(2))/2. Crockett Johnson continued his approximation by constructing XY parallel to AB. It is evident that triangle XYC is similar to triangle ABC, and so XY/XC=AB/AC. This implies that XY=[√((2+√(2)) × (8-5√(2))]/2. Finally he constructed XZ=XY and computed AZ=AX+XZ=[2√(2)-1+(√(2+√(2)) × (8-5√(2))]/2 which approximately equals 1.772435. Crockett Johnson knew that the square root of pi approximately equals 1.772454, and thus AZ is approximately equal to √(Π) - 0.000019. Knowing this value, he constructed a square with each side equal to AZ. The area of this square is (AZ)² = 3.1415258. This differs from the area of the circle by less than 0.0001. Thus, Crockett Johnson approximately squared the circle.

- The painting is signed: CJ68. It is marked on the back: SQUARED CIRCLE* (/) Crockett Johnson 1968 (/) FLAT OIL ON PRESSED WOOD) (/) MATHEMATICALLY (/) DEMONSTRATED (/) TO √π + 0.000000001. It has a white wooden frame. Compare to painting #91 (1979.1093.60).

- References: Crockett Johnson, “On the Mathematics of Geometry in My Abstract Paintings,”
*Leonardo*5 (1972): p. 98.

- C. Johnson, “A Geometrical look at √π,"
*Mathematical Gazette*, 54 (1970): p. 59–60. the figure is from p. 59.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1968

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.35

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.35

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Golden Rectangle*- Description
- Crockett Johnson annotated several diagrams in his copy of Valens’s book
*The Number of Things*, and used a few of them as the basis of paintings. This is one example. It shows three golden rectangles, the curves from a compass used to construct the rectangles, and a section of a five-pointed Pythagorean star.

- Euclid showed in his
*Elements*that it is possible to divide a line segment into two smaller segments wherein the ratio of the whole length to the longer part equals the ratio of the longer part to the smaller. He used this theorem in his construction of a regular pentagon. This ratio came to be called the “golden ratio.”

- A golden rectangle is a rectangle whose sides adhere to the golden ratio (in modern terms, the ratio of its length to its width equals (1 + √(5) ) /2, or about 1.62). The golden rectangle is described as the rectangle whose proportions are most pleasing to the eye.

- This painting shows the relationship between a golden rectangle and a five-pointed Pythagorean star by constructing the star from the rectangle. It follows a diagram on the top of page 131 in Evans G. Valens,
*The Number of Things*. This diagram is annotated. Valens describes a geometrical solution to the two expressions f x f = e x c and f = e - c, and associates it with the Pythagoreans. The right triangle on the upper part of Valens's drawing, with the short side and part of the hypotenuse equal to f, is shown facing to the left in the painting. It can be constructed from a square with side equal to the shorter side of the rectangle. Two of the smaller rectangles in the painting are also golden rectangles. Crockett Johnson also includes in the background the star shown by Valens and related lines.

- This painting on masonite, #64 in the series, dates from 1970 and is signed: CJ70. It also is marked on the back: ”GOLDEN RECTANGLE (/) Crockett Johnson 1970. It is executed in two hues of gold to emphasize individual sections. While this method creates a detailed and organized contrast, it disguises the three rectangles and the star. Compare paintings 1979.1093.33 (#46) and 1979.1093.70 (#103).

- Reference: Evans G. Valens,
*The Number of Things*(1964), p. 131.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1970

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.39

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.39

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Square Roots of One, Two and Three*- Description
- Crockett Johnson much enjoyed constructing square roots of numbers geometrically. He offered the following account of this painting, as well as the figure shown: "Let AN and BN be 1. Then the diagonal AB is the square root of 2, because it is the hypotenuse of a right triangle with sides of length √1 and √1. The large right triangle √1 plus √2 adds up to a hypotenuse of √3. The compass traces pronounce a statement and also declare its proof. The square root of 2 is 1.4142 . . . and the square root of 3 is 1.7321 . . . Their decimals run on and on but as produced by the compass and blind straightedge both numbers are quite as finite as 1. The triangle embodies three dimensions of the cube. CB is any edge, AB is a face diagonal, and AC is an internal diagonal." Crockett-Johnson described the source of the painting as "Artist's Construction, or Anybody's."

- The triangle with three sides equal to the lengths of interest is painted white. Remaining segments of the construction are in dark gray and purple, with a black background. The painting has a brown wooden frame.

- The painting is #66 in the series and is signed: CJ69. For a related painting, see #45 (1979.1093.32).

- Reference: "Geometric Geometric [sic] Paintings by Crockett Johnson" NMAH Collections.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1969

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.41

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.41

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Seventeen Sides (Gauss)*- Description
- Those making mathematical instruments for surveying, navigation, or the classroom have long been interested in creating equal divisions of the circle. Ancient geometers knew how to divide a circle into 2, 3, or 5 parts, and as well as into multiples of these numbers. For them to draw polygons with other numbers of sides required more than a straightedge and compass.

- In 1796, as an undergraduate at the University of Göttingen, Friedrich Gauss proposed a theorem severely limiting the number of regular polygons that could be constructed using ruler and compass alone. He also found a way of constructing the 17-gon.

- Crockett Johnson, who himself would develop a great interest in constructing regular polygons, drew this painting to illustrate Gauss's discovery. His painting follows a somewhat later solution to the problem presented by Karl von Staudt in 1842, modified by Heinrich Schroeter in 1872, and then published by the eminent mathematician Felix Klein. Klein's detailed account was in Crockett Johnson's library, and a figure from it is heavily annotated.

- This oil painting on masonite is #70 in the series. It is signed: CJ69. The back is marked: SEVENTEEN SIDES (GAUSS) (/) Crockett Johnson 1969. The painting has a black background and a wood and metal frame. There are two adjacent purple triangles in the center, with a white circle inscribed in them. The triangles have various dark gray regions, and the circle has various light gray regions and one dark gray segment. The length of the top edge of this segment is the chord of the circle corresponding to length of the side of an inscribed 17-sided regular polygon.

- Reference: Felix Klein,
*Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry*(1956), pp. 16–41, esp. 41.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1969

- referenced
- Gauss, Carl Friedrich

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.45

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.45

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Doubled Cube (Newton)*- Description
- Two paintings in the Crockett Johnson collection concern the ancient problem of doubling the volume of a given cube, or the Problem of Delos. Crockett Johnson wrote of this problem: "Plutarch mentions it, crediting as his source a now lost version of the legend written by the third century BC Alexandrian Greek astronomer Eratosthenes, who first measured the size of the Earth. Suffering from plague, Athens sent a delegation to Delos, Apollo’s birthplace, to consult its oracle. The oracle’s instruction to the Athenians, to double the size of their cubical altar stone, presented an impossible problem . . . . It could not be done with the compass and an unmarked straightedge."

- (p. 99).

- Crockett Johnson's paintings follow a construction proposed by the eminent English mathematician Isaac Newton. As Lucasian professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, Newton was required to deposit copies of his lectures in the university library. In 1683, after he had taught a course in algebra for 11 years, he finally deposited the notes for it. After Newton left Cambridge in 1696, his successor, William Whiston, arranged to have the lectures published in a book with the short title
*Arithmetica Universalis*. Latin editions of the book appeared in 1707, 1722, 1732, and 1761; and English translations in 1720, 1728, and 1769.

- In an appendix to this book, Newton discussed ways of finding the roots of numbers through geometric constructions. One problem was that of finding two mean proportions between given numbers. One case of this problem gives the cube root of a number. [Suppose the numbers are a and b and the proportionals x and y. Then a / x = x / y = y /b). Squaring the first and last term, a² / x² = y² / b². But, from the first equation, one also has x = y² / b. By substitution, a² / x² = x / b, or x³ = a² b. If a is 1, x is the cube root of b, as desired.]

- Newton and Crockett Johnson represented the quantities involved as lengths of the sides of triangles. Newton’s figure is #99 in his
*Arithmetica Universalis*. Crockett Johnson's figure is differently lettered, and the mirror image of that of Newton.

- Following the artist's notation (figure 1979.3083.04.05), suppose AB = 1, bisect it at M, and construct an equilateral triangle MBX on MB. Draw AX and MX extended. Using a marked straightedge, construct line segment BZY, intersecting AX at Z and MX at Y in such a way that XY = AM = MB = 1/2. Then the distance BZ will have a length of one half the cube root of 2, that is to say the length of the side of a cube of side 1/2.

- A proof of Newton’s construction is given in Dorrie. Crockett Johnson's copy of a drawing in this volume is annotated. The duplication of the cube also was discussed in at least two other books in Crockett Johnson's library. One is a copy of the 1764 edition of an English translation of the
*Arithmetica Universalis*, which Crockett Johnson purchased in January of 1972. The second is W. W. Rouse Ball’s*Mathematical Recreations and Essays*, which also discusses Newton's solution.

- Crockett Johnson's painting emphasized doubled lines in the construction, building on the theme of the painting. His diagram for the painting is oriented differently from the painting itself.

- This oil painting on masonite is #85 in the series. It depicts overlapping blue, pink and gray circular segments in two adjacent rectangles. These rectangles are divided by various lines into gray and black sections. A lighter gray border goes around the edge. There is a metal and wooden frame. The painting is unsigned. For a mathematically related painting, see #56 (1979.1093.36).

- References: Crockett Johnson, "On the Mathematics of Geometry in My Abstract Paintings,"
*Leonardo*5 (1972): pp. 98–100. This specific painting is not discussed in the article.

- Heinrich Dorrie, trans. David Antin,
*100 Great Problems of Elementary Mathematics: Their History and Solution*(1965) p. 171. The figure on this page, figure 27, is annotated.

- Isaac Newton,
*Universal Arithmetick*, (1769), esp. pp. 486–87, figure 99. This volume was in Crockett Johnson's library. It is not annotated.

- W. W. Rouse Ball, rev. H. S. M. Coxeter,
*Mathematical Essays and Recreations*, (1962 printing), pp. 327–33. This is a slightly different construction. The volume was in Crockett Johnson's library.

- Isaac Newton,
*The Mathematical Works of Isaac Newton*, assembled by Derek T. Whiteside, vol. 2, (1967). This includes a reprint of the 1728 English translation of the*Arithmetica Universalis*.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1970

- referenced
- Newton, Isaac

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.55

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.55

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Equal Areas, Their Triangular Square Root and Pi*- Description
- This painting, based on a construction of Crockett Johnson, shows a central brown circle, a blue square, and a pink rectangle of equal area. Assuming the radius ot the circle is one, this area equals pi. The blue triangle has an approximate area of square root of pi, presenting the "triangular square root" in the title.

- The diagram is from Crockett Johnson's papers. It begins with construction of a circle of radius one (the smaller circle with center X in the figure) and assumes he could find the square root of pi and construct the line XC equal to this as a side of the square shown. Assuming he can do this, the area of the square is pi. He then draws a circle of radius 2 centered at X , which intersects the square at F and extensions of the line XC at A and at N. Bisecting FX at O, he can draw a second unit circle centered at O. He joined A to B and F to N to obtain triangles XAB and XNF. Next, the artist constructed the semicircle with that intersects circle O at point I and the larger circle at point K. He then drew diameter KP and extended FI to H with IH = 1. To complete the illustration, Crockett Johnson outlined rectangle with sides HI and IP.

- To show that the construction is correct, note that XC = JF = √(pi) because the square with side XC and circle O both have area pi. Triangle XNF = (1/2)(XN)(JF) = (1/2)(2)(√(pi)) = √(pi). To show that the rectangle with sides PI and HI has area pi observe that right triangle PIF is congruent to right triangle PFK. Thus P/IPF = PF/PK and PI = (PF)²/(PK) = (2JF)²/PK = 4(JF)²/PK = 4(√((pi))²)/4 = pi. So, the rectangle has area (HI)(PI) = (1)(pi) = pi, and the demonstration is complete.

- This painting is executed in oil on masonite and is #90 in the series. The figures of the painting that display the painting’s title are colored in bright, bold colors while those shapes that constitute the background are less drastically highlighted. Thus, Crockett Johnson uses color to distinguish the important features of his construction.

- This painting is unsigned and its date of completion is unknown.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1970-1975

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.59

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.59

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Painting -

*Approximation of Pi to .0001*- Description
- In this painting, Crockett Johnson continued his exploration of ways to find rectilinear figures of area approximately equal to pi with another of his own constructions. He took advantage of the fact that the square root of two is 1.414214, while pi is approximately 3.141597. By constructing a length of one tenth the √2 and adding it to length three, he had a length 3.1414214 which, in his language, is an approximation of pi to .0001.

- Here he assumed that the two large overlapping circles both have diameter two, and the smaller circle diameter one. The three blue and white squares then have sides of length one and diagonals of length √2. Suppose (as Crockett Johnson does) that one marks off a length of 1/10 along the side of the rightmost square, and erects a perpendicular. It will cut the diagonal of the small square to form a right triangle that has hypotenuse of length equal to one tenth √2, as desired. This then serves as the radius of a small circular arc, and is added on to the length of the sides of the three unit squares to form an approximate value of pi.

- A diagram from Crockett Johnson's papers presents the mathematics of his construction.

- The painting is #101 in the series. It has a black border and is unframed. It shows two overlapping circles of the same size, a smaller of half the diameter, and the arc of a still smaller circle. The circles are divided by straight lines into turquoise and white sections on the bottom, which form the area approximately equal in area to one of the large circles. The length approximately equal to pi is across the bottom. Sections at the top are in dark purple and black.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1970-1975

- painter
- Johnson, Crockett

- ID Number
- 1979.1093.68

- catalog number
- 1979.1093.68

- accession number
- 1979.1093

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

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