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Science & Mathematics

The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.

The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.

"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 2805 items.

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## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Intersection of Two Planes with Parallel Horizontal Projections

- Description
- Planes APA’ and BQB’ are parallel in the horizontal plane (see their respective horizontal projections AP and BQ) and intersect along line (o, c’)-(d, d’) (wire). This intersection is also parallel to the horizontal projections of the two planes (observe that cd is also parallel in the horizontal plane).

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.15

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.15

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Intersection of Two Planes Parallel to a Line on the Ground (The x-axis)

- Description
- Planes CDD’C’ and ABB’A’ are both parallel to the x-axis (crease in the card). They intersect in line (e, e’)-(f, f’) (wire) which is also parallel to the x-axis. The planes can be visualize by imagining both red strings extending left and right. Both projections of this intersection are shown as well as the rotation of it about the horizontal line perpendicular to the x-axis PA.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.16

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.16

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - General Construction of the Intersection of a Line and a Plane

- Description
- The plane APA’ is intersected by line bc’ represented by the black string. The red string represents a line on the plane which bc’ intersects at point (m, m’). Horizontal and vertical projections of these lines are shown.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.17

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.17

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Special Case of the Intersection of a Line and a Plane

- Description
- As with relief 17, APA’ is again the plane and the red string de’ is on the plane. In this relief, the line is represented by the wire coming out of the horizontal plane and away from the vertical plane (it intersects the vertical plane below the horizontal plane). The point of intersection is at (m, m’) where the wire, the string and the bent wire meet. The horizontal and vertical projections are shown.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.18

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.18

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Three Points Determine a Plane

- Description
- The three points in space are represented at the bends in the three wires at points (a, a’), (b, b’) and (c, c’). The red lines connect the points in pairs showing the resulting triangle that lies on the plane that was to be constructed.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.19

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.19

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Through a Given Point Construct a Plane Parallel to Two Given Lines

- Description
- The point (m, m’) on the left side of the relief is given. On the left side, two lines are given: ab’ depicted by the black string, and dc’ (black string missing). By constructing the red lines hg’ and ef’ parallel to lines dc’ and ab’ respectively, the plane PQP’ containing the point (m, m’) is formed parallel to the two given lines.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.20

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.20

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Through a Given Point Construct a Plane Perpendicular to a Given Line

- Description
- The black string represents the given line bc’, while the point (a, a’) at the bend of the wire represents the given point. The horizontal line coming out of the vertical plane denoted cd’ is perpendicular to line bc’. Point P is the intersection of the vertical and horizontal projections of the wire with the x-axis. It follows that plane FPF’ which contains the line (c,0)-(0,d’) (wire) is also perpendicular to line bc’.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.21

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.21

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Distance from a Point to a Plane

- Description
- Suppose one is given plane APA’ and point (m, m’) not on the plane. To find the distance, one must find the perpendicular from the point to the plane. This is done by finding the shortest vertical and horizontal distances from the point to the plane. Segment mn on the horizontal plane is the projection of the shortest distance of point (m, m’) to the plane horizontally, often referred to as the perpendicular foot. Line de’ (red string) is the image of this foot up onto the plane. Likewise, segment m’n’ is the vertical perpendicular foot and its image on the plane is the wire coming out of the horizontal plane. Point (n, n’) where these two lines meet is the perpendicular from (m,m’) to the plane, and thus the shortest distance.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.22

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.22

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Distance from a Point to a Line

- Description
- Given point (a, a’) and line L, the slanted wire coming out of the horizontal plane at c and extending through (m, m’). Construct the horizontal line through (a, a’) that is perpendicular yet above to line L (the wire coming out of the vertical plane at d toward the right.) Then the plane FPF’ is a perpendicular to L at (m, m’). The vertical projection of the intersection of the plane and L is point e’ while the horizontal projection is point g. The red string is the line joining these two points which passes through (m, m’). Line eg is the horizontal projection of this line. By rotating points (a, a’) and (m, m’) about eg onto the horizontal plane, we get their images A’ and M’. The length of segment A’M’ is the distance from point (a, a’) to the line L at its perpendicular foot (m, m’).

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.23

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.23

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Model for Descriptive Geometry by A. Jullien - Angle of a Plane with Planes of Projection

- Description
- Given plane APA’, c’ is a point on the intersection line of the plane with the vertical plane. Point b on the horizontal intersection of the plane is chosen so it that bc’ is perpendicular to PA. Connect b and c’ to from the red string. The horizontal projection of bc’ is bc and the vertical projection is cc’. By rotating bc’ about bc to the horizontal, point C
_{1}is found. Now angle cbC_{1}is the angle of the plane with the horizontal plane. Similarly, the angle bC_{1}C is the angle with the vertical plane.

- For more details, see COLL.1986.0885 and 1986.0885.01.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1880

- maker
- Jullien, A.

- ID Number
- 1986.0885.01.24

- catalog number
- 1986.0885.01.24

- accession number
- 1986.0885

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center