#
Science & Mathematics

The Museum's collections hold thousands of objects related to chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and other sciences. Instruments range from early American telescopes to lasers. Rare glassware and other artifacts from the laboratory of Joseph Priestley, the discoverer of oxygen, are among the scientific treasures here. A Gilbert chemistry set of about 1937 and other objects testify to the pleasures of amateur science. Artifacts also help illuminate the social and political history of biology and the roles of women and minorities in science.

The mathematics collection holds artifacts from slide rules and flash cards to code-breaking equipment. More than 1,000 models demonstrate some of the problems and principles of mathematics, and 80 abstract paintings by illustrator and cartoonist Crockett Johnson show his visual interpretations of mathematical theorems.

"Science & Mathematics - Overview" showing 2805 items.

Page 165 of 281

## Group of Two Plaster Models for Function Theory by L. Brill, No. 179, Ser. 14 No. 7a and 7b

- Description
- This group of two plaster models was shown at the German Universities Exhibit in Chicago at the 1893 World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition. The models were manufactured by the Darmstadt publishing company of Ludwig Brill and this group contains model numbers 7a and 7b of Brill’s series 14. The series was designed under the direction of the German mathematician Walther Dyck, on the pattern of originals in the mathematical institute at the technical high school in Munich. Brill first sold them in 1886.

- The mathematician Felix Klein came to Chicago as a representative of the Prussian Ministry of Culture and presented several lecture–demonstrations about the mathematical models on display there. After the World’s Fair, the models displayed in Chicago were purchased by Wesleyan University; they were donated to the museum about ninety years later.

- Each model in Brill’s series 14 represents a surface related to an equation involving pairs of complex numbers, (z, w), where z = x + yi, w = u + vi, x, y, u, and v are real numbers, and i is the square root of –1. The horizontal plane passing through the center of each of those models represents the complex z-plane, which is the real Cartesian plane with axes x and y. Each model in series 14 has an R and/or an I inscribed on a vertical face to indicate that the face is the front of the model, i.e., it is parallel to the x axis with positive real x values on the right. R is inscribed if the vertical axis represents u, the real part of w, while I is inscribed if the vertical axis represents v, the imaginary part of w. In this group, there is an R inscribed on the front of model 7a and an I inscribed on the front of model 7b.

- On each model in series 14 there are two sets of curves that act much like the lines on two-dimensional graph paper. One set of curves, called the level curves of the surface, lies on horizontal planes that are spaced at a fixed distance between them, which is 1 cm. on models 7a and 7b. The other set, called the gradient curves of the surface, are perpendicular to the level curves. The placement of the gradient curves on model 7a is related to the level curves on model 7b. Similarly, the placement of the gradient curves model 7b is related to the level curves on the model 7a.

- Models 7a and 7b are based on a Weierstrass P-function. These complex valued functions are named after the nineteenth century German mathematician, Karl Weierstrass and each of these functions can be associated with tilings of the horizontal complex z-plane by congruent parallelograms (like graph paper) so that the complex value of the Weierstrass P-function is the same for corresponding points of the parallelograms of the tiling. The tiling associated with models 7a and 7b is made up of squares with sides parallel to the x and y axes. There are four such squares in each of the models so models 7a and 7b are both made up of four congruent sections each of which has a square base and has at its center a pair of cropped spires and a pair of narrowing holes.

- Only points on the curved surfaces of each model satisfy the equation that defines the model; points in the solid plaster that connects those surfaces do not satisfy that equation. The computer generated versions show only the surfaces so are able to show details that would be difficult to portray on a plaster model. Plots of the surfaces produced using the program
*Mathematica*show scales to indicate the direction of at least two of the variables. Each has an R or an I superimposed approximately where it appears on the corresponding model. For models 7a and 7b, the computer generated versions show the four congruent sections, each of which includes two spires that are hollow and two holes that are downward pointing versions of the hollow spires.

- References:

- L. Brill,
*Catalog mathematischer Modelle*, Darmstadt, 1892, pp. 29-30, 70-72.

- G. Fischer, ed.
*Mathematical Models: From the Collections of Universities and Museums*, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: F. Vieweg & Sohn, vol. 1, photos 129 (model 7a) and 130 (model 7b), pp. 126-127. and vol. 2 (*Commentary*), pp. 71-72, 75-76.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1892

- maker
- L. Brill

- ID Number
- 1985.0112.139

- catalog number
- 1985.0112.139

- accession number
- 1985.0112

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Plaster Model for Function Theory by L. Brill, No. 180, Ser. 14 No. 8

- Description
- This plaster model was shown at the German Universities Exhibit in Chicago at the 1893 World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition. The model was manufactured by the Darmstadt publishing company of Ludwig Brill and is number 8 of Brill’s series 14. The series was designed under the direction of the German mathematician Walther Dyck, on the pattern of originals in the mathematical institute at the technical high school in Munich. Brill first sold them in 1886.

- The mathematician Felix Klein came to Chicago as a representative of the Prussian Ministry of Culture and presented several lecture–demonstrations about the mathematical models on display there. After the World’s Fair, the models displayed in Chicago were purchased by Wesleyan University; they were donated to the museum about ninety years later.

- Each model in Brill’s series 14 represents a surface related to an equation involving pairs of complex numbers, (z, w), where z = x + yi, w = u + vi, x, y, u, and v are real numbers, and i is the square root of –1. The horizontal plane passing through the center of each of those models represents the complex z-plane, which is the real Cartesian plane with axes x and y. Each model in series 14 has an R and/or an I inscribed on a vertical face to indicate that the face is the front of the model, i.e., it is parallel to the x axis with positive real x values on the right. R is inscribed if the vertical axis represents u, the real part of w, while I is inscribed if the vertical axis represents v, the imaginary part of w. There is both an R and an I inscribed on model 8. On adjacent faces of model 9 there is an R and an I inscribed, with the R on the face with the labels.

- On each model in series 14 there are two sets of curves that act much like the lines on 2-dimensional graph paper. One set of curves, called the level curves of the surface, lies on horizontal planes that are spaced at a fixed distance between them, which is 1 cm on model 8. The other set, called the gradient curves of the surface, are perpendicular to the level curves. The placement of the gradient curves on model 8 is related to the level curves.

- Model 8 is based on the derivative of the Weierstrass P-function on which Brill models 7a and b (1985.0112.139) are based. Complex valued Weierstrass P-functions are named after the nineteenth century German mathematician, Karl Weierstrass and the derivative of each of these functions can be associated with tilings of the horizontal complex z-plane by congruent parallelograms (like graph paper) so that the complex value of the derivative of the Weierstrass P-function is the same for corresponding points of the parallelograms of the tiling. The tiling associated with models 7a, 7b, and 8 is made up of squares with sides parallel to the x and y axes and there are four such squares in each of the models. Model 8 is made up of four congruent sections each of which has a square base and three cropped spires alternating with three narrowing holes equally spaced around the center of each square.

- Only points on the curved surfaces of model 8 satisfy the equation that defines the model; points in the solid plaster that connects those surfaces do not satisfy that equation. The computer generated versions show only the surfaces so are able to show details that would be difficult to portray on a plaster model. Plots of the surface produced using the program
*Mathematica*show scales to indicate the direction of at least two of the variables. Although each plot has both an R and an I superimposed approximately where it appears on the model, if there is an R or an I facing the front, the x axis is parallel to that face and the vertical axis is labeled u if R is on that face and is labeled v if I is on it. For model 8, as well as models 7a and 7b, the computer generated versions show four congruent sections. In model 8 each section includes three hollow spires alternating with three downward pointing versions of the hollow spires.

- References

- L. Brill,
*Catalog mathematischer Modelle*, Darmstadt, 1892, pp. 29-30, 70-72.

- G. Fischer, ed.
*Mathematical Models: From the Collections of Universities and Museums*, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden: F. Vieweg & Sohn, vol. 1, photo 131, p. 128, and vol. 2 (*Commentary*), pp. 71-72. 75-76.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1892

- maker
- L. Brill

- ID Number
- 1985.0112.140

- catalog number
- 1985.0112.140

- accession number
- 1985.0112

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Group of Two Plaster Models for Function Theory by L. Brill, No. 181, Ser. 14 No. 9a and 9b

- Description
- This group of two plaster models was shown at the German Universities Exhibit in Chicago at the 1893 World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition. The models were manufactured by the Darmstadt publishing company of Ludwig Brill and this group contains model numbers 9a and 9b of Brill’s series 14. The series was designed under the direction of the German mathematician Walther Dyck, on the pattern of originals in the mathematical institute at the technical high school in Munich. Brill first sold them in 1886.

- The mathematician Felix Klein came to Chicago as a representative of the Prussian Ministry of Culture and presented several lecture–demonstrations about the mathematical models on display there. After the World’s Fair, the models displayed in Chicago were purchased by Wesleyan University; they were donated to the museum about ninety years later.

- Each model in Brill’s series 14 represents a surface related to an equation involving pairs of complex numbers, (z, w), where z = x + yi, w = u + vi, x, y, u, and v are real numbers, and i is the square root of –1. The horizontal plane passing through the center of each of those models represents the complex z-plane, which is the real Cartesian plane with axes x and y. Each model in series 14 has an R and/or an I inscribed on a vertical face to indicate that the face is the front of the model, i.e., it is parallel to the x axis with positive real x values on the right. R is inscribed if the vertical axis represents u, the real part of w, while I is inscribed if the vertical axis represents v, the imaginary part of w. In this group, there is an R inscribed on a vertical face of model 9a and an I inscribed on a vertical face of model 9b. However, since there is no vertical face of either model that is parallel to the x axis, the R and I are inscribed on faces that meet the x axis in what appears to be a 30 degree angle.

- On each model in series 14 there are two sets of curves that act much like the lines on two-dimensional graph paper. One set of curves, called the level curves of the surface, lies on horizontal planes that are spaced at a fixed distance between them, which is 1 cm on models 9a and 9b. The other set, called the gradient curves of the surface, are perpendicular to the level curves. The placement of the gradient curves on model 9a is related to the level curves on model 9b. Similarly, the placement of the gradient curves model 9b is related to the level curves on the model 9a.

- Models 9a and 9b are based on a Weierstrass P-function. These complex valued functions are named after the nineteenth century German mathematician, Karl Weierstrass and each of these functions can be associated with tilings of the horizontal complex z-plane by congruent parallelograms (like graph paper) so that the complex value of the Weierstrass P-function is the same for corresponding points of the parallelograms of the tiling. One tiling associated with the Weierstrass P-function defining models 9a and 9b is made up of rhombuses whose angles are 60 and 120 degrees and with one pair of sides parallel to the x axis. One can see one such rhombus in models 9a and 9b by joining the four points where the tops of each pair of cropped spires meet. The sides of the rhombus parallel to the x axis pass through the center of the cropped spires in model 9a and pass between a cropped spire and a hole in model 9b.

- The tiling by rhombuses leads to an alternate tiling by regular hexagons with one pair of sides parallel to the y axis and with the structures that were centered at each vertex of the tiling by rhombuses sitting at the center of each hexagon of the tiling. Models 9a and 9b are made up of four such hexagons that have been slightly trimmed. This tiling is difficult to see directly on the model but can be easily seen in two dimensional plots mimicking bird’s-eye views of the surfaces that were produced using the program
*Mathematica*. These plots have been superimposed with an outline in red of four of the tiling hexagons and thicker black lines that show the models’ footprints. In addition, +’s and –‘s have been placed to indicate the location of the cropped spires (+’s) and the tapering holes (-‘s). These two-dimensional plots also show why the models do not have rectangular footprints and why the R and I could not be placed on faces parallel to the x axis.

- Only points on the curved surfaces of each model satisfy the equation that defines the model; points in the solid plaster that connects those surfaces do not satisfy that equation. The computer generated versions show only the surfaces, and so are able to show details that would be difficult to portray on a plaster model. Plots of the surfaces produced using the program
*Mathematica*show scales to indicate the direction of at least two of the variables. Each has an R or an I superimposed approximately where it appears on the corresponding model. For models 9a and 9b, the computer generated versions show that the spires are hollow and the pairs of tapering holes are downward pointing versions of the pairs of upward pointing hollow spires. These versions are produced by taking x and y values from a rectangle grid so extra portions of the surfaces are seen, including parts of single spires in the left front and right rear corners.

- References:

- L. Brill,
*Catalog mathematischer Modelle*, Darmstadt, 1892, pp. 29-30, 70-73.

- “Mathematische Modelle angefertigt im mathematischen Institut der k. technischen Hochschule in München unter Leitung von Professor Dr. Walther Dyck. Modelle zur Functionentheorie (Zu Serie XIV)” [“Mathematical Models Made in the Mathematical Institute of the Royal Technical College in Munich under the Direction of Professor Dr. Walther Dyck. Models for Function Theory (For Series 14)”], pp. 1-3, 7-8, 11-13 and fig. 6 plate III.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1892

- maker
- L. Brill

- ID Number
- 1985.0112.141

- catalog number
- 1985.0112.141

- accession number
- 1985.0112

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Plaster Model for Function Theory by L. Brill, No. 182, Ser. 14 No. 10b

- Description
- This model is one of a group of two plaster models that was shown at the German Universities Exhibit in Chicago at the 1893 World’s Fair: Columbian Exposition. The model was manufactured by the Darmstadt publishing company of Ludwig Brill and is number 10b of the group that also contains model 10a of Brill’s series 14. The series was designed under the direction of the German mathematician Walther Dyck, on the pattern of originals in the mathematical institute at the technical high school in Munich. Brill first sold them in 1886.

- Each model in Brill’s series 14 represents a surface related to an equation involving pairs of complex numbers, (z, w), where z = x + yi, w = u + vi, x, y, u, and v are real numbers, and i is the square root of –1. The horizontal plane passing through the center of each of those models represents the complex z-plane, which is the real Cartesian plane with axes x and y. Each model in series 14 has an R and/or an I inscribed on a vertical face to indicate that the face is the front of the model, i.e., it is parallel to the x axis with positive real x values on the right. R is inscribed if the vertical axis represents u, the real part of w, while I is inscribed if the vertical axis represents v, the imaginary part of w. There is an I inscribed on a vertical face of model 10b but, since there is no vertical face of the model that is parallel to the x axis, the I is inscribed on a face that meets the x axis in what appears to be a 30 degree angle.

- On each model in series 14 there are two sets of curves that act much like the lines on 2-dimensional graph paper. One set of curves, called the level curves of the surface, lies on horizontal planes that are spaced at a fixed distance between them, which is 1 cm on model 10b. The other set, called the gradient curves of the surface, are perpendicular to the level curves. The placement of the gradient curves on model 10ba is related to the level curves on model 10a, which is not in the museum collections.

- Model 10b is based on the derivative of the Weierstrass P-function on which Brill models 9a and b (1985.0112.141) are based. Complex valued Weierstrass P-functions are named after the nineteenth century German mathematician, Karl Weierstrass and the derivative of each of these functions can be associated with tilings of the horizontal complex z-plane by congruent parallelograms (like graph paper) so that the complex value of the derivative of the Weierstrass P-function is the same for corresponding points of the One can see one such rhombus in model 10b by joining the four points where the tops of three cropped spires meet. At each vertex of the rhombus the sides of the rhombus parallel to the x axis pass in front of a cropped spire. parallelograms of the tiling. The tiling associated with models 9a, 9b, 10a, and 10b is made up of rhombuses whose angles are 60 and 120 degrees and with one pair of sides parallel to the x axis. One can see one such rhombus in model 10b by joining the four points where the tops of three cropped spires meet. At each vertex of the rhombus the sides of the rhombus parallel to the x axis pass in front of a cropped spire.

- The tiling by rhombuses leads to an alternate tiling by regular hexagons with one pair of sides parallel to the y axis and with the structures that were centered at each vertex of the tiling by rhombuses sitting at the center of each hexagon of the tiling. Model 10b is made up of four such hexagons that have been slightly trimmed. This tiling is difficult to see directly on the model but can be easily seen in a two dimensional plot mimicking a bird’s-eye view of the surface that were produced using the program
*Mathematica*. This plot has been superimposed with an outline in red of four of the tiling hexagons and thicker black lines that show the model’s footprint. In addition, +’s and –‘s have been placed to indicate the location of the cropped spires (+’s) and the tapering holes (-‘s). These two-dimensional plots also show why the models do not have rectangular footprints and why the R and I could not be placed on faces parallel to the x axis.

- Only points on the curved surfaces of the model satisfy the equation that defines the model; points in the solid plaster that connects those surfaces do not satisfy that equation. The computer generated versions show only the surfaces, and so are able to show details that would be difficult to portray on a plaster model. Plots of the surface produced using the program
*Mathematica*show scales to indicate the direction of at least two of the variables and each has an I superimposed approximately where it appears on the model. For model 10b, as well as models 9a and 9b, the computer generated versions show four congruent sections. In model 10b each section includes three hollow spires alternating with three downward pointing versions of the hollow spires. The plots are produced by taking x and y values from a rectangle grid so extra portions of the surface are seen, including parts of additional spires that are outside the footprint of the model. A version of this plot has been overlaid with the two sides of the rhombus that are parallel to the x axis and the long diagonal of the rhombus, which is parallel to the base of the vertical face with the inscribed I.

- References:

- L. Brill,
*Catalog mathematischer Modelle*, Darmstadt, 1892, pp. 29-30, 70-73.

- “Mathematische Modelle angefertigt im mathematischen Institut der k. technischen Hochschule in München unter Leitung von Professor Dr. Walther Dyck. Modelle zur Functionentheorie (Zu Serie XIV)” [“Mathematical Models Made in the Mathematical Institute of the Royal Technical College in Munich under the Direction of Professor Dr. Walther Dyck. Models for Function Theory (For Series 14)”], pp. 1-3, 7-8, 11-13 and fig. 7 plate III.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1892

- maker
- L. Brill

- ID Number
- 1985.0112.142

- catalog number
- 1985.0112.142

- accession number
- 1985.0112

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Remington Rand 93 Adding Machine

- Description
- Like many religious organizations, Christ Congregational Church in Silver Spring, Maryland, used an adding machine to track its finances.

- This ten-key printing electric adding machine has a black plastic case and a metal base. It has a block of nine white number keys with a 0 bar below. Subtract and repeat keys are to the right of the number keys, and a total bar is to the right of these. Left of the number keys are non-add and subtotal keys and a correction bar. A place indicator is above the keyboard and a printing mechanism, carriage, and motor behind it. A hinged door opens to give access to the black ribbon. Color-coded dots above the paper tape serve as place markers and a serrated edge assists in tearing the tape. The printing mechanism has room for further digit fonts. One may enter numbers of up to seven digits and print results of up to eight digits. A cord extends from the back of the machine. There are four rubber feet. When the machine prints, decimal points are not indicated.

- The machine is marked above the keyboard: REMINGTON RAND. It is marked on the right side: MODEL NO 93 (/) ADDING BOOKKEEPING * CALCULATING MACHINES (/) MADE IN U.S.A. The serial number on the base is 93-710565.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- 1949

- maker
- Remington Rand

- ID Number
- 1987.0687.01

- maker number
- 93-710565

- accession number
- 1987.0687

- catalog number
- 1987.0687.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Puzzle, Rubik's Cube

- Description
- This Rubik’s Cube, purchased about 1980, is an early example of a puzzle that was developed in 1974 by a Hungarian professor of architecture, Erno Rubik. It was originally called a Magic Cube but was renamed after the Ideal Toy Company took over distribution in 1980.

- The puzzle is shaped as a 3 X 3 X 3 cube and looks as if it is made up of twenty six visible 1 X 1 X 1 cubes, called cubies, together with another cubie at the center of the cube that is not visible. The puzzle was sold with each face of the cube (a 3 X 3 square) showing the 1 X 1 square faces of nine cubies that are all of the same color. The squares are white, blue, red, yellow, green, and orange. The background plastic of the cube is black.

- There are three different types of cubies that are visible: corner pieces have three visible faces displaying three different colors; edge pieces that lie between two corner pieces have two visible faces displaying two different colors; and center pieces display only one face. The twenty six visible pieces on the cube include eight corner pieces, twelve edge pieces, and six center pieces. The space at the center of the cube is taken up by a mechanism that allows the puzzle solver to rotate any face of the 3 X 3 X 3 cube. These rotations scramble the cubies so more than one color can appear on the faces of the puzzle. There are more than 42 quintillion (42 followed by 18 zeros) possible arrangements of the cubies that can be reached by this type of rotation. The object of the puzzle is to get the cube back to its original position after the faces have been scrambled so they no longer display only one color.

- While a rotation of a face of the puzzle scrambles the puzzle it cannot change the type of any cubie. That fact is important in the mathematical analysis of the solution of this puzzle, which involves permutations and permutation groups. Starting around 1980 many variants of this Rubik’s cube, including 2006.0061.01-15 and 2012.0091.03, have been manufactured. There are many books, articles, and websites about the Rubik’s Cube and other twisting puzzles that use the same or similar mechanisms.

- References:

- Douglas R. Hofstadter, “METAMAGICAL THEMAS: The Magic Cube’s cubies are twiddled by cubists and solved by cubemeisters,”
*Scientific American*, vol. 244, #3, March, 1981, pp. 20-39.

- Douglas R. Hofstadter, “METAMAGICAL THEMAS: Beyond Rubik’s Cube: spheres, pyramids, dodecahedrons and God knows what else,”
*Scientific American*, vol. 247, #1, July, 1982, pp. 16-31.

- RubikZone [Number of Combinations] website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- date made
- ca 1978

- ID Number
- 1987.0805.01

- accession number
- 1987.0805

- catalog number
- 1987.0805.01

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Puzzle, The Magic Cube

- Description
- This puzzle, The Magic Cube, is an early example of what became known as a Rubik’s Cube. It was made in 1980 in the United States and remains in its original packaging, which includes an instruction sheet on a folded piece of paper inserted into the plastic wrapping. For more information about the Rubik’s Cube and other twisting puzzles that use the same or similar mechanisms see 1987.0805.01.

- In its solved position each face of the cube (a 3 X 3 square) shows the faces (1 X 1 squares) of nine small cubes, all of the same color. The squares are red, black, yellow, green, orange, and blue. The background plastic of the Magic Cube is white; the later Rubik’s Cubes had black backgrounds.

- This puzzle is among Rubik’s Cube related items from the Cube Museum, which operated in Grand Junction, Colorado, from 1988 to 1991.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- Date made
- 1980

- date made
- ca 1980

- maker
- LOGIC GAMES, INC.

- ID Number
- 2006.0061.01

- catalog number
- 2006.0061.01

- accession number
- 2006.0061

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Puzzle, Rubik's Cube for the Blind

- Description
- This puzzle is an example of a Rubik’s Cube made with raised symbols as well as colors so the puzzle can be solved by people who are blind or visually impaired.

- In its solved position each face of the cube (a 3 X 3 square) shows the faces (1 X 1 squares) of nine small cubes, all of the same color and raised shape. The visible squares are red with squares, white with circles, orange with triangles, green with disks, and blue with line segments. The sealed hard plastic packaging hides the sixth face but a photograph of another example of the same puzzle shows the above faces as well as a yellow face with plus signs.

- A solution for the Rubik’s Cube might not work for the Rubik’s Cube for the Blind since the raised symbol on the center piece of the blue and orange sides might be incorrectly oriented, making additional moves necessary to correctly orient those symbols.

- This puzzle was made in 1981 in Hungary and remains in its original packaging. This puzzle is among Rubik’s Cube related items from the Cube Museum, which operated in Grand Junction, Colorado, from 1988 to 1991. For more information about the Rubik’s Cube and other twisting puzzles that use the same or similar mechanisms see 1987.0805.01.

- Reference:

- TwistyPuzzles [Rubik’s Blind Man’s Cube] website.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- Date made
- 1981

- date made
- ca 1981

- maker
- Ideal Toy Corporation

- IDEAL TOY CORP.

- ID Number
- 2006.0061.02

- catalog number
- 2006.0061.02

- accession number
- 2006.0061

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Cube Puzzle Key Rings

- Description
- This puzzle, which was made in Taiwan, is a small version of a Rubik’s Cube that is attached by a short chain to a key ring. The edges of this puzzle are about half the length of those of a standard size Rubik’s Cube.

- This puzzle is accompanied by its original cardboard box, which looks like a Rubik’s Cube. It was made in Taiwan in the early 1980s and is among Rubik’s Cube related items from the Cube Museum, which operated in Grand Junction, Colorado, from 1988 to 1991. For more information about the Rubik’s Cube and other twisting puzzles that use the same or similar mechanisms see 1987.0805.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- Date made
- 1980s

- date made
- early 1980s

- ID Number
- 2006.0061.03

- catalog number
- 2006.0061.03

- accession number
- 2006.0061

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

## Perpetual Calendar Puzzle

- Description
- This puzzle is a perpetual calendar that is based on a Rubik’s Cube, but only one face of the cube is solved each day. The puzzle is stored in its original packaging, a cardboard box, and is wrapped in plastic so the original date, Saturday January first, is maintained.

- On the face of the cube that represents the day, the top row displays the day of the week ((Satur)(day)( )), the middle row displays the month ((J)(A)(N)), and the bottom row displays the day of the month (( )( )(1)). The box also contains a black plastic stand for display and instructions.

- This puzzle was made in Korea and packed in the United States in about 1982. It is among Rubik’s Cube related items from the Cube Museum, which operated in Grand Junction, Colorado, from 1988 to 1991. For more information about the Rubik’s Cube and other twisting puzzles that use the same or similar mechanisms see 1987.0805.01.

- Location
- Currently not on view

- Date made
- 1982

- date made
- ca 1982

- maker
- Ideal Toy Corporation

- IDEAL TOY CORP.

- ID Number
- 2006.0061.04

- catalog number
- 2006.0061.04

- accession number
- 2006.0061

- Data Source
- National Museum of American History, Kenneth E. Behring Center

- Next Page