This exhibition is a collective effort by staff of the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History. Exhibitions are complex undertakings, and the history they present is an interpretation of historical evidence informed by knowledge and experience.

Presidency Project Team:
Exhibition curators:  Lonnie Bunch, Spencer Crew, and Harry Rubenstein
Section co-curators:  William L. Bird Jr. and Shannon Perich
Exhibition educator:  Julia Forbes
Editor:  Joan Mentzer
Curatorial team:  Frances Dispenzirie, Lisa Kathleen Graddy, Jane Fortune, William Eastman, Laura Kreiss, Carrie Bruns, Tom Bower, Kathryn Henderson, Howard Bass, Susan Walther, Judith Gradwohl, Bob Norton, Gina Cordero, David Miller, Susan Ostroff, Ian Cooke
Public services:  Harold Closter
Project managers:  Lynn F. Chase and Patrick J. Ladden
Video production:  The History Channel and Selma Thomas

National Museum of American History Web Site Team:
Project director:  Judith Gradwohl
Content manager: Matthew MacArthur
Editor: Rachel Bernhardt
Additional content provided by: Chris Cotrill, Robin Currie, Julia Forbes, James Gardner, Nancy McCoy, Leslie M. O'Flahavan, Marilynne Rudick, Deb Sisum
We are grateful to the following companies for their generous support of The American Presidency Web site: iXL, Los Angeles; America Online; MSN

Web site design and production by:
iXL , Los Angeles
Project Manager:  Amanda Smith
Information Architect:  Megan Emery
Creative Director:  Pam Watanabe
Application Developer:  Kati Burdon, Henry So
Graphic Designer:  Julie Christen, Shannon Sea

Flash Development: 

Scott Delamater, Matthew Strangio, Niilo Tippler
Content Editor:  Carrie Powell
Client Partner:  Sarah E. Bordac
Marketing:  Brian Albert, Sarah Chambers


Unless otherwise noted, all other text and images are copyright © National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. See the Smithsonian copyright statement for terms and conditions of use.

Image reference numbers:

Numbers below refer to Smithsonian negative numbers, except for Library of Congress images which are preceded by "LC."

"$100,000 Reward" poster LC-USCZC4-5341

1933 Inauguration Ticket 2000-6067

1956 Democratic National Convention program 86-11645

"A Guide to Your Television Appearance" Booklet, 1950s 2000-6902

ABC press pass, 1984 Republican National Convention 2000-6299

Abraham Lincoln and General McClellan at Antietam LC-B8171-7951

Abraham Lincoln mourning card 2000-6092

Abraham Lincoln mourning ring 2000-7111

Abraham Lincoln with son Thomas (Tad) LC-USZ62-11897

Abraham Lincoln's 1862 cabinet 78-5889

Abraham Lincoln's assassins LC-USZ62-17383

Abraham Lincoln's Coat 2000-6322

Abraham Lincoln's Funeral Cortege in New York City 2000-1748

Abraham Lincoln's funeral procession in New York City 2000-7147

Abraham Lincoln's Hands, cast in Plaster, 1860 2000-7109

Abraham Lincoln's Ink Stand 2000-7107

Advertisement for "ABA Traveler's Cheques" featuring President Theodore Roosevelt 2000-7002

Advertisement with an image of Theodore Roosevelt

Advertisement for "Cherry Smash" with the image of George Washington 2000-7802

Advertisement for Jefferson Towers 2000-6996

Advertisement for Lincoln Tea 2000-6999

Advertisement for "Sweet Home" Soap with John Adams 2000-7390

Advertisement for Washington Cigars 2000-7803

Advertisement for Washington Crisps Corn Flakes 2000-6997

"African Hunter" Sheet Music 2000-7587

Akeley Newsreel Camera, 1935 2000-6355

Alexander Graham Bell's Induction Balance 2000-6312

Alice Roosevelt with her husband Nicholas Longworth LC-USZ62-13443

Amy Carter NLC-WHSP-C-01592-22

Andrew Jackson as "The Hero of New Orleans" 2000-7379

Andrew Jackson's sword from the War of 1812 90-10106

Andrew Johnson's impeachment committee LC-USZ62-31933

Anti Viet Nam Protest Sign 2000-6287

Anti-lynching Handbill 2000-6286

Archie Roosevelt on a horse LC-USZ62-15284

Assassination & Mourning 2001-31

Attempted Assassination of Andrew Jackson LC-USZ62-2342

Audiometer 2000-6845

Ballot box, 74-4097

Bandana commemorating George Washington's resignation 2000-6297

Barry Goldwater campaign poster 96-2823

Beaded moccasins presented to Ulysses S. Grant 2000-7102

Birthday Card from Lyndon B. Johnson 2000-6887

Block of White House wood and stones 2000-6830

Blue Feathered Hat 2000-6325

Book on Theodore Roosevelt 2000-7583

Book with red cloth cover 2000-7378

Bottle Stand used by George Washington 97-7906

"Boy reading newspaper" by Colie Smith LC-USF34-44054-d

Breadboard promoting Herbert Hoover 2000-6351

Bringing the Campaign Home 2001-15

Bryan Donkey and Taft Elephant 2000-7127

"Building the First White House" 71-2060

George Washington in front of unfinished White House

Building the White House 2001-48

Bush/Quayle Hat, 1992 Republican National Convention 96-3374-6

Button Commemorating George Washington's First Inauguration 97-7908

Button Commemorating George Washington's First Inauguration 97-7917

Cake box from Grover Cleveland 's wedding 2000-6338

Camp Table Used By Theodore Roosevelt on His Travels 2000-1248

Campaign banner for James A. Garfield 2000-7783

Campaign poster for Grover Cleveland 96-2831

Campaign poster for Willke 86-13967

Cane 2000-7204

Cane Bequeathed to George Washington by Benjamin Franklin 98-3879

Cane Presented to Former President John Quincy Adams 98-3880

Capturing an Essence: The Presidency as Souvenier 2001-6

Caroline and John-John Kennedy 28661

Carriage Police Pass 2000-6294

Cartoon of Abraham Lincoln as Don Quixote LC-USZ62-22383

Cartoon of James A. Garfield as a farmer LC-USZ62-4915

Cartoon of Ulysses S. Grant on a trapeze LC-USZC4-5606

Casket Received by Former President Ulysses S. Grant in London 2000-7106

Cathedral Radio, 1940s 2000-6267

CBS microphone Used for President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "fireside-chats" 98-3878

CBS press pass, 1984 Democratic National Convention 2000-6300

Centennial Presidential Game 80-1535

Ceramic pitcher with the Image of William Henry Harrison 564-54

Chairs Used in the 1960 Nixon-Kennedy Debate 93-12718

Champagne bottle from the inauguration of John F. Kennedy 2000-6843

Cheesehead Hat , 1996 Democratic National Convention 97-1409

Child-sized George Washington Costume 2000-6330

Christmas Card 91-2796

Christmas Pageant Program made by Eisenhower grandchildren 2000-7579

Cigar ads featuring President Grover Cleveland 2000-6995

"Cleveland's Luck" Cartoon 2000-7381

Clock with Figure of President Franklin D. Roosevelt 2000-7098

"Coffee with Kennedy" Paper Cup 2000-6344

Color Print of China from the Nixon-Cox wedding 2000-6895

"Columbia Grieving at Lincoln's Bier" (Woman at Coffin) 2000-7145

Commemoratives from Ronald Reagan's Second Inauguration 2000-6060

Compass used on Lewis and Clark expedition, 1803 95-3550

Congress voting independence LC-USZ62-6078-A

"Congressional Scales" cartoon LC-USZ62-8230

Cornflower-covered dish 2000-7118

Creating a Private Life 2001-52

Crock Inscribed with Protest Over 1824 election results 564-62

Decorative Hair Comb With Presidential Portraits 94-6249

Desk Designed and Used by Thomas Jefferson 2000-3214

Desk Designed and Used by Thomas Jefferson 2000-3214

Dessert plate used by James and Elizabeth Monroe 2000-6335

Dessert Plate used by Lyndon and Lady Bird Johnson 2000-7119

Dinner plate used by Ronald and Nancy Reagan 83-10446

Display of Hair from Various American Presidents 2000-4600-12

"Dollars for Democrats" button 86-11679

Dollhouse for the children of Grover Cleveland 77-12886

Dress Worn by First Lady Grace Coolidge, 1920s 2000-6314

Drum Used at the Funeral of President Abraham Lincoln 2000-7125

Dwight D. Eisenhower's 1960 State of the Union Address 2000-6305

Dwight D. Eisenhower's Golf Clubs and Bag 2000-7117

Dwight Eisenhower Enjoys His Leisure 2001-30

Eagle Torch, 1860 Presidential Campaign 96-2888

Easter eggs signed by George and Barbara Bush 2000-7122

Edison phonograph recordings 2000-6332

Engraving of Daniel Webster addressing the Senate 2000-6356

Establishing the Presidency 2001-57

Fan with image of Franklin D. Roosevelt and his cabinet 2000-7059

"Fifty Cents" cartoon LC-USZ62-1582

First Lady Dolley Madison's Trunk 2000-6350

First Lady Grace Coolidge with her pet racoon LC-USZ62-100816

Ford's Theatre LC-B8171-7765

Foundations of the Office 2001-53

Franklin D. Roosevelt Mourners on the Street LC-T2-15

Franklin D. Roosevelt's funeral LC-USZ62-106334

Franklin D. Roosevelt's Funeral Procession LC-USZ62-67439

Franklin D. Roosevelt's Lap Robe 2000-7116

"Free Trade of 1840" cartoon 42042

Full Dinner Pail Lantern 80-15251

Funeral address for Abraham Lincoln 2000-6086

Funeral Service Announcement for John F. Kennedy 2000-6104

Furnishing the Presidential Mansion 2001-58

Gavel presented to the Speaker of the House, 1952. 2000-1251

"George Bush Drive" Street Sign 2000-7785

"George Bush Drive" Street Sign 2000-7785

George Bush on "Dawn of an Asian Era" panel 648-28

George Washington, an Inspiration for the Presidency 2001-56

George Washington Hatchet Souvenir 2000-7065

George Washington Returns Home 2001-25

George Washington's Easy Chair 80-3217

George Washington's Farewell Adress Lamp 2000-6311

George Washington's Home in High Street, Philadelphia, PA LC-USZ62-25441

George Washington's Uniform, 1790s 74-4946

Getting Out the Vote 2001-19

"Go light" for pacing speakers at the 1996 Republican National Convention 97-1408

Gold Box and Nugget Presented to Abraham Lincoln in 1864 2000-7108

Gold coin 95-3573A

Goldwater campaign drink 2000-7114

"Grapefruit bag" for carrying NBC news videotapes during the 2000 presidential primaries 2000-7795

Grover Cleveland's Fishing Flies 2000-7096

Grover Cleveland's Inaugural Ball 72722

Hancock Rooster 96-2889

"Hands that Pick Cotton..." Poster 84-8973

"Happy Days Are Here Again" flag 2000-7796

Harnessing the Airwaves 2001-11

Harry S. Truman's Vacation Shirt 2000-6318

Hat worn by Abraham Lincoln the night he was shot 95-5528

Hats Off to Politics 2001-16

"Have you registered to vote?" poster 96-2810

Helen Thomas' White House Press Pass 2000-7173

Henry Clay's Senate Chair 2000-1250

Herbert Hoover's Fishing Reel 2000-7066

Herbert Hoover's last campaign speech, 1932 75-7714

"Housewives for Nixon/Lodge" poster from the 1964 Presidential Campaign 2000-7781

"How Do You Get an Elephant in a Voting Booth?" poster 96-2836

"Hurrah Lincoln" Torch, 1860 Presidential Campaign 564-107

illustration of man on coin 78-18264

Impeachment of Andrew Johnson LC-USZ62-106849

Inaugural License Plate, 1949 73-10021

Inaugural License Plate, 1957 73-10023

Inaugural Souvenir Ladder 2000-7300

Inauguration Coat worn by Benjamin Harrison 2000-6319

Independence Hall LC-USZ62-9486

Inuagural Plate, 1909 2000-6837

Invitation 2000-7590

Invitation to Abraham Lincoln's Inaugural Ball, 1865 2000-6069

Invitation to inaugural ball for James K. Polk 2000-6292

Invitation to Ride Abraham Lincoln's Funeral Train 2000-6093

Invitation to tribute dinner for William J. Clinton 2000-7786

Invitations to Franklin D. Roosevelt's Birthday Ball 2000-7168

"It's the Economy, Stupid!" button 2000-6353

James Buchanan greeting envoys from Japan LC-USZ62-32022

James Buchanan's memoirs 2000-7585

James K. Polk's Letter Seal 2000-6328

Japanese present to Ulysses and Julia Grant 90-7801

Japanese present to Ulysses and Julia Grant 90-7801

Jefferson and the Louisiana Purchase 2001-60

Jimmy Carter Peanut Bank 84-6253

John Dean sits with his wife Maureen during break in his tesifying before Senate Watergate Hearings 2001-74

John Dean's Watergate Testimony Draft 2000-7382

John F. Kennedy lying in state LC-USA7-25504

John F. Kennedy's funeral 73-3670

John Quincy Adams (seated) LC-USZ62-5120

Jug supporting candidate J. Hanson 80-3959

Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's Swearing-In Robe 93-13172

Kennedys Game 2000-7101

"King Andrew Jackson" cartoon LC-USZ62-1562

"King Andrew Jackson" cartoon LC-USZ62-1562

Kraft Macaroni & Cheese for Repuplicans or Democrats 2000-7097

Lawrence Spivak (left), host of Meet the Press, 1964 LC-USZ62-115509

LBJ Juice Can 2000-7113

Leather Chaps Worn by Theodore Roosevelt 94-186

Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant LC-B8184-b-36

Life Magazine, Kennedy Assassination 2000-6089

Lincoln being Assassinated LC-USZ62-12426

Lincoln mourning card 2000-6103

Lincoln Mourning Locket 2000-6324

Lincoln's Funeral train "Nashville" LC-USZ62-11964

Lyndon B. Johnson Dartboard Game 2000-7126

Lyndon B. Johnson Dartboard Game 2000-7126

Mary Todd Lincoln's Mourning Scarf Pin 94-6247

Maypole Celebration during Herbert Hoover 's administration LC-F8-42459

Menu for State Dinner honoring Prince Henry of Prussia 98-2112

Miniature Portrait of Martha Washington 89-6826

Model Log Cabin, 1840 Presidential Campaign 94-185

Mount Rushmore LC-USZ62-102201

Mourning Locket for Abraham Lincoln 2000-6323

Mug from the Inauguration of Benjamin Harrison 2000-6850

Musical Program, FDR 2000-6889

National Museum of American History Closing Sign for the Death of John F. Kennedy 2000-6088

NBC Microphone 2000-7105

Nixon-Cox Wedding Press Packet 2000-6894

Nixon-Mao Ping-Pong Set 2000-7099

Note Accompanying Fence Rail Split by Abraham Lincoln 2000-7387

Note Accompanying Fence Rail Split by Abraham Lincoln 2000-7387

Note warning of the assassination of William McKinley 2000-7591

Notice for a meeting to promote William Henry Harrison 96-2832


"One Man One Vote" Flag, 1965 96-2811

Original Teddy Bear 93-7205

Page from Theodore Roosevelt's 1912 speech 2000-6101

Paperweight from the 1973 inaugural committee 2000-6842

Paperweight with the image of Thomas Jefferson 2000-7302

Paperweight with the image of William McKinley 2000-7301

"PATCO" and anti-budget cuts Buttons 2000-7376

Pencil Case featuring presidents 2000-6331

Pennant 2000-7049

Pennant for Inauguration of Herbert Hoover 2000-7051

Pennant for the Inauguration of Lyndon B. Johnson 2000-7053

Pennant for the Inauguration of Woodrow Wilson 2000-7050

Pennant from the Inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower 2000-7052

Photo of John Wilkes Booth 2000-6102

Photographers on the White House lawn LC-USZ62-H261-24394

Pillow Cover Promoting President Woodrow Wilson 2000-6354

Pineapple hat worn at the1996 Republican National Convention 97-1404

Pitcher and creamer from The Whig Party's 1840 log-cabin campaign 2000-6341

Place Card For Dinner hosted by Rutherford and Lucy Hayes 2000-6888

Plaster life mask of Abraham Lincoln 2000-7124

Plaster life mask of Abraham Lincoln 2000-7124

Playbill for Ford's Theatre 2000-7003

political cartoon 2000-7789

political cartoon 2000-7790

political cartoon 2000-7377

Portion of Fence Rail Split by Abraham Lincoln 2000-6334

Portion of Fence Rail Split by Abraham Lincoln 2000-6334

Portrait of Senator Henry Clay 2000-6315

Poster of President John F. Kennedy Welcoming Peruvian President Prado 2000-7797

Pot holder with image of Dwight D. Eisenhower 97-8766

President Nixon resigning 2001-73

Press ID from wedding of Luci Johnson 2000-6893

press pass, 1968 Republican National Convention 2000-6298

print of gravestone 2000-6899

Prison Hoods used on "Lincoln Conspirators" 2000-6326

Program for John F. Kennedy's memorial service 2000-6098

Program for the Inaugural Gala of George Bush 2000-6061

Program for the Inauguration of John F. Kennedy 2000-6063

Program for the Inauguration of William J. Clinton 2000-6062

Program for the National Christmas Tree Lighting, 1938 2000-7058

Program from a Dinner for Theodore Roosevelt 2000-7582

Progressive Party button 80-1499

Protecting the President: The United States Secret Service 2001-46

Railroad Station Floor Tile 2000-7303

Railroad timetable for Abraham Lincoln's funeral train 2000-6094

"Reagan in '84" button 2000-6346

Record Album, "Give 'Em Hell, Harry" 2000-7385

Record Album, "The First Family" 2000-7384

"Register Today So You Can Vote for a Better Tomorrow" poster 96-2834

Remaining Accessible to the People 2001-49

Ribbon from the inauguration of George Bush 2000-7055

Rice from the wedding of Luci Johnson 2000-7068

Rifle used by Abraham Lincoln 2000-6336

Robe worn by Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist 2000-6321

Rocking Elephant 96-2877

Scarf worn by Richard M. Nixon at his 1969 Inauguration 2000-7054

Seating Plan for a Dinner Hosted by Rutherford and Lucy Hayes 2000-6883

Senate Desk and Chair, 1870s 2000-1249

Senator Henry Clay's straw hat 94-136

Set for Meet the Press, 1975 2000-1253

Sewing Box with an image of John Quincy Adams 80-1523

Sheet music for Abraham Lincoln's funeral march 2000-6100

Sheet Music for "Abraham, Martin and John" 2000-7388

Sheet music for "Hail to the Chief" 2000-7780

Sheet music for "He Was Your Friend and Mine" 2000-6095

Sheet music for James A. Garfield's funeral march 2000-6085

Sheet Music for "The Unemployment Blues" 2000-7389

Shoes Worn by First Lady Grace Coolidge 2000-6337

"Sigamos La Causa! Registree Para Votar" poster 96-2838

Silk Pajamas Worn by Warren G. Harding 2000-6313

"Sing Out Freedom" poster 2000-7791

Sleeve Cuff Stained With Abraham Lincoln's Blood 2000-2852

Snuff Box 77-8110

Snuff Box with the image of Andrew Jackson 95-7124

Souvenier Seller, c. 1910 LC-D4-43503

Souvenir seller, 1943 LC-USW3-36109-E

Speaker's Lecturn, early 1900s 84-4523


"Stop Abortion Now" Poster 2000-6288

Suffragette protest LC-USZ62-31799

Sun Watch Given to Warren G. Harding in 1921 2000-6347

Table and chairs used at the Confederate surrender at Appomattox 99-5515-7

Tabulating votes with the Univac computer 2000-7763

"Teddy's Teeth" Whistle 2000-7001

TelePrompter Text, 1984 2000-7779

"Thank You , Mr. President" poster for Dwight D. Eisenhower 86-10848

The 1960 Nixon-Kennedy debate studio 84-10773

The attack on James A. Garfeld LC-USZ62-7622

The Calvin Coolidge family LC-F8-26025

The Constitutional Convention LC-USZ62-92869

"The Evening Star" 2000-7800

"The Gift Outright, " by poet Robert Frost 2000-6066

The Inauguration of James Buchanan LC-USZ62-327

The Inauguration of William H. Taft LC-USZ62-7634

The Inauguration of William McKinley LC-USZ62-236

The inauguration of Woodrow Wilson LC-USZ62-215

"The Log Cabin" campaign newspaper, 1840 2000-6901

The Pullman Palace Car Company strike of 1894 LC-USZ62-10546

The Right to Vote 2001-18

The Second Continental Congress LC-USZ62-45328

The Second Continental Congress LC-USZ62-45328

The Sudden Death of FDR 2001-41

The Trans-Lux Theater 78-14193

The White House as Symbol and Home 2001-47

Theodore Roosevelt and John Muir at Yosemite National Park LC-USZ62-8672
Theodore Roosevelt Campaigning LC-USZ62-2898

Theodore Roosevelt Remains "Vigorous" 2001-28

Theodore Roosevelt Rough Rider Doll 2000-7062

"This speech is costing..." Cartoon LC-USZ62-17269

Thomas Jefferson's Musket 2000-6339

Thomas Jefferson's Polygraph 2000-6343

Ticket for an Inaugural Party for Jimmy Carter 2000-6058

Ticket for Harry S. Truman's 1949 inaugural ball 2000-6064

Ticket to Ford's Theater 2000-6087

Ticket to inaugural ball for Dwight D. Eisenhower 2000-6065

Ticket to inaugural ball for John F. Kennedy 2000-6070

Ticket to inaugural ball for Lyndon B. Johnson 2000-6290

Ticket to inaugural ball for Ronald Reagan 2000-6059

Ticket to inaugural ball for William McKinley 2000-6071

Ticket to the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 89-8229

Ticket to the Impeachment of Andrew Johnson 89-8229

Ticket to the Inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt 2000-6291

Ticket to the Inauguration of John F. Kennedy 2000-6293

Ticket to the inauguration of Ulysses S. Grant 2000-6068

Trowel presented to President Ulysses S. Grant 2000-7110

Truman ties on sale 90-5082

Ulysses S. Grant greeting a Japanese delegation 94-2023

Ulysses S. Grant writing his memoirs LC-USZ62-7607

United States Lines advertisement featuring Harry Truman 2000-6994

"Vote" Tote Bag, 1972 Presidential Election 2000-6342

"Votes for Women" pennant 96-2806

"Votes For Women" ribbon 96-2809

Warren G. Harding speaking outdoors in 1921 LC-USZ62-96012

Warren G. Harding's baseball pass 2000-6896

"We Need 100% Parity" protest sign 2000-7788

Wedding announcement for Grover Cleveland and Frances Folsom 2000-7584

White House Bowling Pin, about 1951 2000-4684

White House Christmas Brochure, 1975 2000-7248

White House Christmas Ornament, 1975 2000-6834

White House Easter Eggs, 1989 and 1991 2000-7121

White House Menu, January 1979 2000-6892

White House Ornament, 1975 2000-6835

White House Secret Service uniform, c. 1970 2000-6340

"WHOSE STREETS/OUR STREETS!" protest sign, 2000 2000-7798

William J. Clinton Halloween Mask 2000-7063

Wine Glass Used by George Washington 2000-6308

"With Rights... Come Responsibilities" poster 2000-7782

Wood beam from the first White House 2000-6831

Woodrow Wilson with his granddaughter LC-USZ62-14398

"Yes 18" button 96-2849

"You're on TV..." pamphlet 86-13990

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