Ph.D., 1968 B.A., 1964
Numismatic technology; eighteenth-century token coinage of the British Isles; Latin American coinage, especially from the nineteenth century; nineteenth-century American private bank notes; Confederate monetary history.
Current Projects: Publication of an electronic book Pictures from a Distant Country (on American self-imagery through the medium of nineteenth-century private bank notes; continuing work on seventeenth- and eighteenth-century coining technology. Past Projects: Preparation of a book on eighteenth-century industrial coiner and partner of James Watt, Matthew Boulton, examination of the connections between American colonial silversmiths and moneyers.
Millennium Medal from the Royal Numismatic Society (London, 2000)
President, International Committee of Money and Banking Museums, 1998 to date; member of societies in USA, Canada, Mexico, Belgium, Greece, Australia, Argentina, UK.