SLATES, SLIDE RULERS, AND SOFTWARE--TEACHING MATH IN AMERICA
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This chart (below, left) is one of a series that teaches arithmetic. Designed by Boston school superintendent and textbook author Frederick Emerson, it was used to teach addition from images of bees, birds, watches, and butterflies. The lesson proceeds from adding single objects to a general recitation about adding ones. It was meant to be used with a numeral frame.

 

Arithmetic Card - Click To Enlarge
ARITHMETIC CARD
 
Geometric Models - Click To Enlarge
GEOMETRIC MODELS

In 1833 Connecticut school reformer and lecturer Josiah Holbrook developed a collection of apparatus for teaching in homes and schools. These models (above, right) are part of Holbrook’s set. He designed them to help students learn the names of simple solids, basic rules for calculating the area of various flat surfaces, and elementary drawing. Holbrook advertised that his equipment was “Good enough for the best, and cheap enough for the poorest.” It was used in thousands of schools. 

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The Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History, Behring Center