The Early Republic
The Information Age

By the late 1980s, advances in computers and calculators, combined
with new patterns of work and demographic changes, persuaded many
mathematics educators that reforms were in order. The National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics proposed new standards for mathematics education.
To train students in problem solving along lines suggested by the
standards of the NCTM, Paul Hartung devised this set of puzzles for
classroom use.


Objects retain an active place in elementary education. Caleb Gattegno, who popularized Cuisenaire rods, argued that young children could learn basic information about geometric patterns by outlining them with rubber bands on a grid of nails in a board. “Geoboards” made of plastic are now widely used in the United States. This example (below; left) was used at a school in Connecticut.




In the 1990s, enrollments at preschools boomed. Both parents and teachers purchased a wide array of manipulatives for teaching basic principles of mathematics. 
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