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History Preservation Collection Body Parts
Kapit, Wynn and Lawrence E. Elson.The Anatomy Coloring Book. New York: Addison Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc., 1993.
Petherbridge, Deanna and Ludmilla Jordanova. The Quick and the Dead: Artists and Anatomy. Berkley: University of California Press, 1997.
Cusick, Dawn. Paper & Fabric Mâché: 100 Imaginative Ingenious Projects to Make. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., 1994.
DeVoe, Shirley Spaulding. English Papier-Mâché of the Georgian and Victorian Periods. Middletown, Connecticut: WesleyanUniversity Press, 1971.
McCormick, Alex. Papier-Mâché Style. Radnor, Pa.: Chilton Book Company, 1995.
Papier-Mâché Anatomical Models:
Davis, Audrey B., “Louis Thomas Jerôme Auzoux and the Papier-Mâché Anatomical Model", Rivista di Storia delle Scienze Mediche e Naturali Review of the History of the Sciences Medicaland Natural, vol xx. From the Acts of the International Congress on Ceroplastics Science and in Art, Florence, 3-7 June 1975.
Grob, Bart, The World of Auzoux: Models of Man and Beast in Papier-Mâché, Museum Boerhaave, Leiden, The Netherlands: 2000
Ishida, S. and Willim J. Mulder, Introduction of the Anatomie Clastique to Japan, in Journal of the Japan Society of Medical History, 30 No. 1,  Tokyo: 1984, 56-58.
Mulder, Willem J., L. Th. J. Auzoux’s Models Used for the Dissemination of Anatomic Knowledge, Proceedings 6th Congress E.A.M.H.S.M. 1992. Leiden, The Netherlands: 129-136.
Trade Catalogues in the NMAH Collections:
American Thermo-Ware Co., About Manikins. New York: 1906.
-The Architecture of Mankind, 1906.
Dr. G. H. Michel & Co., Anatomical Charts. Cleveland, Ohio: N.D.
Établissements du Docteur Auzoux. Materiel d’Enseignement. Paris: N.D.
James W. Queen & Co., Anatomie de Structure Chez L’ Homme par Le Docteur F.G. Lemercier. Philadelphia: N.D.
-Anatomie Clastique Du Docteur Auzoux. N.D.
The Kny-Scheerer Co., Catalogue of Anatomical Models. New York: 1910
New York Scientific Supply Co., Inc., American Biological Models for Human Anatomy, Embryology, Botany, Zoology. New York: 1936.
Denoyer-Geppert Company. Models, Skeletons, Charts, Specimens and Slides, Number 6B. Chicago: 1928.
-Dr. Auzoux Anatomical Models. Circa 1940
Richard Kny & Co., Descriptive Catalogue No II Anatomical Models. New York: 1895.
Ward’s Natural Science Establishment. Catalogue of Human Skeletons,  Anatomical Models, Botanical Models, Busts and Masks.  Rochester, New York: 1893.

-Catalogue of Human Skeletons, Anatomical Models and Busts. Rochester, New York: 1894.
-Catalogue of Human and Comparative Skeletons Osteological Specialties and Anatomical Models. Rochester, New York: 1902 & 1903
General guides in the following publications can be adapted for anatomical models.
Bachmann, Konstanze, ed. Conservation Concerns: A guide for Curators and Collectors. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
CCI Notes. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Conservation Institute. (Series in a variety of conservation-related subjects) Visit www.cci-icc.gc/framset_e.shtml
Conserve O Gram (a series of leaflets) from the National Park Service. Visit
MacLeish, A. Bruce. The Care of Antiques and Historical Collections. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Altamira Press, 1985. Call 805-499-9774
Rose, Carolyn  L. and Amparo W. de Torres, eds. Storage of Natural History Collections. Visit
Schultz, Arthur Warren and Robert McCormick Adams. Caring for your Collections.  New York: Harry Abrams, Inc., 1992.
Wax Models:
Haviland, Thomas N. and Lawrence Charles Parish. A Brief Account of the Use of Wax Models in the Study of Medicine. in Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. Vol. XXV, Number 1 (1970): 52-75
Parish, Lawrence Charles. Gretchen Worden,  Joseph A. Witkowski, Albrecht Scholz and Daniel H. Parish. Wax Models in Dermatology. Transactions & Studies of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia Ser. 5, Vol. 13, No.1 (1991): 29-74
Museum Collections, Papier-Mâché Anatomical Models:
The following catalog is not a complete list of all papier-mâché anatomical collections.  We decided to concentrate on the larger collections. There are many fine museums that have only one or two models...
Francis A. Countway Libray and Museum
Harvard University
The Countway Library and Museum has a collection of approximately twenty Auzoux papier-mâché models including a series of comparative anatomy of brains, hearts, the nervous and circulatory systems.
Museum Boerhaave
Leiden, The Netherlands
Museum Boerhaave has one of the most extensive collections of Auzoux papier-mâché anatomical models. Included in their collection are male and female models, a human larynx, eye, spinal cord and cerebellum, a male Pelvis, and a human heart. The collection of comparative anatomy models include the circulatory, nervous, digestive and respiratory systems of wild and domestic animals.  Most of the models date between 1850 and 1900.
Mütter Museum
The College of Physicians of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, PA 19103-3097
The Mütter Museum has an extensive collection of Auzoux papier-mâché models many of which are on exhibit. The collection includes a human eye, ear, hand, spinal cord, models of human embryos and uteri, a human brain and models of the male and female pelvic organs.  Their veterinary collections contain a horses leg and an enlarged bird egg.
National Museum of Health and Medicine
Walter Reed Army Medical Center
Washington, DC 20306-6000
The papier-mâché anatomical model collection at the National Museum of Health and Medicine is large and diverse. The majority of the models are in storage and include both human and veterinary models. The collection contains a human hand and tongue, a cross-section of a kidney and a larynx. The veterinary collection includes the circulatory systems of a carp, a  cuttlefish, a snake, and the stomach of a bee and a horse. Their lone botanical model is a group of mushrooms mounted on a plot of land  made from papier-mâché. The models date from 1875 to 1924.
National Museum of American History
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, DC 20560
For a list of Papier-Mâché anatomical models from the Smithsonian Institution see the Collections Page of this web site.
Science Museum
London, England 
The Science Museum has a model of an eye, 1913; a human? spine a male model and a half-scale Arabian horse, circa 1850-1870. The collection includes several papier-mâché anatomical models made in China and Japan.
Transylvania University
Moosnick Medical and Science Museum
Lexington, Kentucky
The collections include a life-size male model, a female model, feotal heart, a dissectable eye and models of human embryos at various stages of gestation.
Utrecht University Museum
Utrecht, The Netherlands
The university has collections from the fields of human and veterinary anatomy as well as botanical models. These collections include a 4' 3" male model, an enlarged ear, eye, larynx, lung, brain and models of flowers. Veterinary examples include a snake, caterpillars an enlarged chicken egg, animal brains, stomachs and several examples of horses legs.
Web Sites:
Conserving the Past for the Future. The Cleveland Museum of Art. Visit
The Multi-Dimensional Human Embryo Project.
The Visible Human Project
Contact Resources Credits