These wooden Indian clubs were used by Bavarian born Louis A Zinsmeister, Supervising Teacher of Physical Education for the Milwaukee Public Elementary Schools. Club swinging became a popular exercise for both girls and boys in physical education classes and in private gymnasiums in the early 1900's. Routines were chorographed for health and competitions. The clubs are swung in patterns to increase flexibility and strengthen the upper body. Zinsmeister was also a member of the Bahn Frei Turners, an Indian Club team and retired from the school system in 1938.
Indian clubs are elongated duck pins or bowling pin shaped weights, usually made of wood and made of various sizes and weights. These are one pound each and are stamped on the side "1LB." They have two carved grooves in the body of the pin that are painted black. The knob at the top may have once been painted and there is red paint/pigment on the bottom of one pin. They also appear to have a varnish coating.
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