By the mid-twentieth century, industrial and organizational psychologists developed tests for businesses and governments to administer to prospective employees. To meet this market, in 1952 Stanford-trained psychologist and textbook author Floyd Leon Ruch (1903-1982) established Psychological Services, Inc., in Los Angeles. Ruch also remained on the faculty of the University of Southern California. His son, William W. Ruch, devoted his career of PSI. One set of tests sold by the company was this Employee Aptitude Survey. It includes ten multiple choice tests of skills ranging from verbal comprehension to space visualization to numerical ability. Test authors were Floyd L. Ruch, Glen Grimsley, Neil D. Warren, and James S. Ford. With the tests came an examiner’s manual and a spiral-bound technical report that listed the occupations tested and related scores. Each occupation is associated with only one sex, reflecting contemporary gender roles. All these materials are stored in a paper envelope.
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