Washington Fire Hat


Beginning in the late 18th century, some volunteer fire fighters began to wear hats painted with their company’s name to identify themselves at chaotic fire scenes. During the 19th century, these fire hats became more ornate, as portraits of historical figures, patriotic scenes, allegorical images, or company icons were painted alongside the company’s name, motto, or founding date. Made of pressed felt, these “stove-pipe” hats were primarily used in Philadelphia, but other nearby cities such as Baltimore and Washington adopted them as well. Fire hats were personal items with the owner’s initials often painted on the top of the hat. While these hats were worn at fires, they are more colloquially known as “parade hats.” Fire companies commonly marched in the many parades of the period and these ornate hats contributed to the visual culture of their day. These distinguishing features in a company’s regalia often proclaimed the members’ cultural and political identity as well as their position on contested topics such as work, religion and immigration.

This fire hat dates to the first half of the 19th century. The hat is painted brown overall, with a portrait of George Washington painted inside a golden oval surrounded by green foliage. The text “Washington Co.” is arching above the portrait in gold paint. The back of the hat has the date “1820” in gold paint surrounded by a gold oval. The Washington Bucket Company was founded in 1820 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the company’s initials “W.B.” are on the top in gold block letters.

Date Made: 1820s

Associated: Washington Co.Depicted: Washington, GeorgeMaker: unknown

Location: Currently not on view

Place Made: United StatesAssociated: United States: New Jersey, Paterson

Subject: Fire FightingFraternal Associations


See more items in: Home and Community Life: Fire Fighting and Law Enforcement, Cultures & Communities, Clothing & Accessories, Fire Hats, Work, Firefighting Collection, Art


Exhibition Location:

Related Publication: McCosker, M.J.. The Historical Collection of the Insurance Company of North America

Credit Line: Gift of CIGNA Museum and Art Collection

Data Source: National Museum of American History

Id Number: 2005.0233.0094Catalog Number: 2005.0233.0094Accession Number: 2005.0233

Object Name: hat, fire

Physical Description: painted (overall production method/technique)paint (overall material)fabric, pressed felt (overall material)Measurements: overall: 5 in x 14 in x 12 7/8 in; 12.7 cm x 35.56 cm x 32.7025 cm

Guid: http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746ab-fcfb-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa

Record Id: nmah_1318720

Our collection database is a work in progress. We may update this record based on further research and review. Learn more about our approach to sharing our collection online.

If you would like to know how you can use content on this page, see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use. If you need to request an image for publication or other use, please visit Rights and Reproductions.