Teachers Manual for Standard Practice Tests in Arithmetic


Just before World War I, Stuart A. Courtis, a teacher at a private school for girls in Detroit, Michigan, developed the first widely available standardized tests of arithmetic. His goal was to measure the efficiency of entire schools, not the intellectual ability of a few students.

Courtis went on to become supervisor of educational research in the Detroit public schools. There he developed a set of lesson cards in arithmetic for students in the third through eighth grades. The tests were originally published under his name by World Book Company.

This is a teacher’s manual for a later edition of the drill cards. Courtis’s name does not appear. Courtis withdrew his arithmetic tests from the market in 1938 because he had come to doubt their validity.

The manual was the property of Brooklyn school teacher L. Leland Locke.


Kidwell, P.A., A. Ackerberg-Hastings and D. L. Roberts, Tools of American Mathematics Teaching, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 43–46.

Date Made: 1924

Maker: Detroit Public Schools

Location: Currently not on view

Place Made: United States: Michigan, Detroit

Subject: Mathematics


See more items in: Medicine and Science: Mathematics, Science & Mathematics, Arithmetic Teaching


Exhibition Location:

Credit Line: Gift of Grove City College

Data Source: National Museum of American History

Id Number: 2011.3051.01Nonaccession Number: 2011.3051Catalog Number: 2011.3051.01

Object Name: pamphlet

Physical Description: paper (overall material)Measurements: overall: .4 cm x 15.4 cm x 23 cm; 5/32 in x 6 1/16 in x 9 1/16 in

Guid: http://n2t.net/ark:/65665/ng49ca746a6-b3ca-704b-e053-15f76fa0b4fa

Record Id: nmah_1408188

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