Pamphlet, Understanding Testing Purposes and Interpretations for Pupil Development


In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, practitioners of the relatively new discipline of psychology developed a variety of objects for use in testing the intellectual abilities, skills, and response times of individuals. Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, they began to use paper-and-pencil tests to evaluate such human characteristics as intelligence, manual dexterity, work skills, academic achievement, personality, and character. The new methodology was used by the U.S. Army during World War I to test the intelligence of recruits. After the war, it spread widely in American schools, offices, and industry.

Psychologist Samuel Kavruck (1915-2009) accumulated a collection of tests during his long career at the U.S. Civil Service Commission, the U.S. Office of Education, and George Washington University. Three of them involve physical manipulation of wooden puzzles, the others are paper-and-pencil. The materials date from 1916 to 1966, with the bulk from between 1920 and 1950. In addition to tests, the collection includes score sheets, test keys, manuals, and related publications.


Accession file.

“Samuel Kavruck GWU Professor,” Washington Post, March 16, 2009.

Date Made: 1960

Maker: McLaughlin, K. F.U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare

Location: Currently not on view

Subject: MathematicsPsychological Tests


See more items in: Medicine and Science: Mathematics, Science & Mathematics


Exhibition Location:

Credit Line: Gift of Samuel Kavruck

Data Source: National Museum of American History

Id Number: 1990.0034.001Catalog Number: 1990.0034.001Accession Number: 1990.0034

Object Name: Pamphlet

Physical Description: paper (overall material)Measurements: overall: .1 cm x 20 cm x 26 cm; 1/32 in x 7 7/8 in x 10 1/4 in


Record Id: nmah_692291

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