Sheets, A Tentative Guide for the Administration and Interpretation of the Bender Gestalt Test


New York-born Max L. Hutt (1908-1985), an instructor in clinical psychology at the Adjutant General’s School, prepared this typed document, which was distributed by the Department of Neuropsychiatry of the Medical Field Service School at Fort Sam Houston, Texas and is dated September of 1947. The materials also include a February 1948, guide relating to the Thematic Perception [Apperception?] Test. The Bender Gestalt Test was first introduced by neuropsychologist Lauretta Bender (1897-1987) in 1938 as a test of visual motor function consisting of nine drawings, each on its own index card. Subjects were asked to copy the drawings. The test was popularized by Hutt during and after World War II as a way to judge brain damage and what is now called post-traumatic stress syndrome.

From 1946 to 1960, Hutt was on the faculty in psychology at the University of Michigan. He then moved to the University of Detroit, although he returned to Ann Arbor in his later years.

For instructions for the Bender Gestalt Test, see MA.316372.21. For versions of the images shown on the test (all on one sheet), see MA.316371.113.


Hutt, Max L., Characteristic Differences in the Achievement of Bright and Dull Pupils: An Analysis of Research Studies, , M.A. Dissertation, Department of Education, City College of New York,1930.

Hutt, Max L., “The Projective Use of the Bender-Gestalt Test,” in Projective Techniques in Personality Assessment, ed. A.I. Rabin, New York: Springer, 1968, pp. 397-420.

“Deaths”, New York Times, July 16, 1985, p. B6.

Date Made: 1945-1948

Maker: Hutt, Max L.

Location: Currently not on view

Subject: MathematicsPsychological Tests


See more items in: Medicine and Science: Mathematics, Science & Mathematics


Exhibition Location:

Credit Line: Gift of Samuel Kavruck

Data Source: National Museum of American History

Id Number: 1990.0034.172Catalog Number: 1990.0034.172Accession Number: 1990.0034

Object Name: set of sheets

Physical Description: paper (overall material)Measurements: overall: 22.5 cm x 29 cm; 8 27/32 in x 11 13/32 in


Record Id: nmah_692461

Our collection database is a work in progress. We may update this record based on further research and review. Learn more about our approach to sharing our collection online.

If you would like to know how you can use content on this page, see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use. If you need to request an image for publication or other use, please visit Rights and Reproductions.