Electronic Calculators—Handheld -- References


A collection of desktop electronic calculators in the Division of Medicine and Science at the National Museum of American History.


In addition to the references cited below, information about specific calculators is given in individual records. This list suggests both references found especially useful and the kind of sources those examining calculators may wish to consider. It is by no means complete.

Print Publications

Guy Ball and Bruce Flamm, The Complete Collector's Guide to Pocket Calculators, Tustin, CA:  Wilson/Barnett Publishing, 1997.

Kathy B. Hamrick, “The History of the Hand-Held Electronic Calculator,” American Mathematical Monthly, 102, October 1996, pp. 633–639.

Peggy Aldrich Kidwell, Amy Ackerberg-Hastings, and David Lindsay Roberts, Tools of American Mathematics Teaching, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

W.A.C. Mier-Jedrzejowicz, A Guide to HP Handheld Calculators and Computers, Tustin, California: Wilson/Burnett Publishing, 1997.

U.S. International Trade Commission, “In the Matter of Certain Electronic Calculators,” Investigation No. 337-7A-198, Washington, D.C, 1985.


Rick Bensene, The Old Calculator Web Museum, http://www.oldcalculatormuseum.com

Serge Devidts, Calcuseum Vintage Electronic Calculators, http://www.calcuseum.com

Casio International website, historical section, http://www.casio-intl.com/asia-mea/en/calc/history

Datamath Calculator Museum, http://www.datamath.org

BE CALC Vintage Electronic Calculators website – this has become http://www.calcuseum.com

Epocalc, http://www.epocalc.net/

Flow Simulation Ltd., The Calculator Home Page, http://www.calculator.org

David G. Hicks, The Museum of HP Calculators, http://www.hpmuseum.org

Philippe, My Calculators Database, http://mycalcdb.free.fr

Viktor T. Toth, Programmable Calculators, http://www.rskey.org/CMS

Nigel Tout, Vintage Calculators Web Museum, http://www.vintagecalculators.com/index.html. This has links to several other websites.

John Wolff, John Wolff’s Web Museum, Calculating Machines, http://www.johnwolff.id.au

Bob Wolfson, Bob’s Calculators and Slide Rules, https://sites.google.com/site/bobscalculatorsandsliderules

Katherine Wasserman, [Digitized Calculator Manuals], http://www.wass.net/manuals


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