Smithsonian museums continue to be closed to support the effort to contain the spread of COVID-19. Read a message from our director, and check our website and social media for updates.

Kinematic Models -- Resources



On-line demonstrations: Wolfram Mathworld, and,

Chironis, Nicholas, Gear Design and Applications, 1967, p.160.

Davis, W.O., Gears for Small Machines, 1953, p.9.

Grant, George, Teeth of Gears, 1891, p.69.

Hartenberg, Richard S., Kinematic Synthesis of Linkages, 1964, p. 185.

Kidwell, Peggy, “American Mathematics Viewed Objectively: The Case of Geometric Models”, Calinger, R. Ed., MAA Notes 40, 1996, pp. 197-207.

Roberts, David Lindsay, “Linkages, A Peculiar Fascination” in Tools of American Mathematics Teaching, 1800-2000, Kidwell, P.A., Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008, pp. 233-242.

Schilling, Martin, Catalog Mathematischer Modelle für den höheren mathatischen Unterricht, Halle a.s., Germany, 1911, pp. 56-57. Also available at

Snyder, Virgil, review of Catalog mathematischer Modelle für den höheren mathatischen Unterricht, Bulletin of American Mathematics, Jan 1904, pp.209-210.


Switch to List View Switch to Grid View