On Thursday, December 8, the museum will close at 3:30 p.m. due to a special event; Spark!Lab and Wonderplace will close at 3 p.m.

Punch Cards -- Resources


Jacquard looms survive not only at NMAH, but at several other museums. These include a model of Jacquard’s design at the Conservatoire des Artes et Métiers in Paris (see Modèle : Métier original de Jacquard | Musée des arts et métiers (arts-et-metiers.net)), as well as examples at the Science Museum in London (search Science Museum Group Collection for “Jacquard loom”), the National Museums of Scotland (see Jacquard loom (nms.ac.uk)) and at the Science and Industry Museum in Manchester, England (see The story of the Jacquard loom | Science and Industry Museum). A nineteenth century example is on display at the Lang Pioneer Village Museum in Keene, Ontario in Canada (see S. W. Lowry Weaver's Shop & Jacquard Loom Interpretive Centre - Lang Pioneer Village Lang Pioneer Village). An example built for display at Greenfield Village in 1934 is on the collections of The Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan. The Computer Museum of America in Roswell, Georgia, recently acquired one (the information in this paragraph is based on websites searched April 8, 2021).

G. Austrian, Herman Hollerith, Forgotten Giant of Information Processing, New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

Charles J. Bashe, Lyle R. Johnson, John H. Palmer, Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computer, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985.

A.G. Bromley, “Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine 1838,” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 20 #4, (1998), pp. 29 - 45.

C. Babbage, Passages from the Life of a Philosopher, London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, & Green, 1864, esp. pp. 112-138 (this is the third edition).

M. Campbell-Kelly et al., Computer: A History of the Information Machine, Boulder, Co.: Westview, 2014.

P. Ceruzzi, “Calvin Mooers, Zatocoding, and Early Research on Information Retrieval,” Exploring the Early Digital, Ed. Thomas Haigh, Charm, Switzerland: Springer, 2019, pp. 69-86.

J. Delve, "Joseph Marie Jacquard: Inventor of the Jacquard Loom" IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 29 #4 (2007) pp. 98–102.

L. Heide, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion 1880-1945. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009.

IBM100 - The IBM Punched Card, accessed April 4, 2021. This website gives an account of punch cards at IBM.

L.F. Menebrea, translated with notes by A.A. Lovelace, "Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage," Taylor's Scientific Memoirs, vol. 3, 1843, pp. 666-731.

A. Norberg, “High-Technology Calculation in the Early 20th Century: Punched Card Machinery in Business and Government,” Technology and Culture, vol. 31 (1990), pp. 753-779.

E. A. Posselt and Philadelphia Museum of Art, The Jacquard Machine Analyzed and Explained: With an Appendix on the Preparation of Jacquard Cards, Philadelphia, Pa.: Published under the auspices of the school [Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art], 1888. This nineteenth century account discusses Jacquard’s life, his attachment for looms, and the controversy it caused in contemporary France. A digitized version of thepublication, made by the Library of Congress, may be found through Hathitrust.

L. E. Truesdell, The Development of Punch Card Tabulation in the Bureau of the Census 1890-1940. Washington: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1965.