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The Abacus and the Numeral Frame -- Later Uses in the United States

Later Uses in the United States

By the mid-twentieth century, numeral frames were used less often in classrooms in the United States, but sold widely as an educational toy and less often as a device for the blind. Beads moved on rods or wires also remained part of classroom instruction. The Smithsonian collections include a “place value board,” a device in which plastic discs are moved along bent wires to teach elementary school students about units, tens, thousands and so forth.


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