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Magnifying glass and chads, Broward County, Florida, 2000

Magnifying glass and chads, Broward County, Florida, 2000

Usage conditions apply
The presidential contest between George W. Bush and Al Gore came down to Florida in November 2000. A confusing ballot design and incomplete punch marks hampered the recount effort, which ground into late November until halted by the Supreme Court.
In Broward County, teams of counters examined each ballot, forwarding cards in need of interpretation to Judge Robert A. Rosenberg. A famous photograph shows Rosenberg peering through a magnifying glass at a ballot and the “chads” (paper fragments) dangling from incomplete punch marks. This is one of two magnifying glasses that Rosenberg used and kept as souvenirs of the recount, together with a bag of “authentic chads.”
Gift of Robert A. Rosenberg, 2001–2004
Currently not on view
Object Name
chad, ballot
date made
place made
United States: Florida
United States: Florida
Physical Description
beige (overall color)
paper (overall material)
plastic (overall material)
white (overall color)
black (overall color)
overall: 2 in x 3 7/8 in; 5.08 cm x 9.8425 cm
ID Number
accession number
catalog number
Credit Line
Robert R. Rosenberg
See more items in
Political and Military History: Political History, General History Collection
Souvenir Nation
Government, Politics, and Reform
Data Source
National Museum of American History
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