Cherokee .28 Caliber Percussion Pistol

Cherokee .28 Caliber Percussion Pistol

This.28-caliber percussion pistol with a distinctive underhammer design was made in Qualla Town, now Cherokee, North Carolina in 1843. Inscriptions in English and Cherokee identify it as the work of Salola, a blacksmith of the Oconaluftee Cherokee.
Underhammer pistols were popular from the mid-1830s until the Civil War. Sometimes called bootleg pistols, underhammers were easily constructed, were easy to carry and draw, offered an unobstructed line of sight for aiming, and provided a measure of safety from exploding percussion caps to the shooter's eyes.
This pistol was sent to the Patent Office in 1845 by William Holland Thomas as an example of the educational and industrial aptitude of the Cherokee people. A white trader in Qualla Town, Thomas learned the Cherokee language and was soon adopted by the tribe. He went on to become a lawyer and represented the Eastern Band of Cherokee as a state senator and as an advocate in Washington, D. C.
The pistol was held at the Patent Office until the opening of the Smithsonian's Arts & Industries Building in 1883.
Object Name
Other Terms
pistol; Firearms; Percussion Fire;.28 In; Rifled; Muzzle Load; Sa
Date made
associated date
Place Made
United States
made at
United States: North Carolina
Physical Description
wood (overall material)
brass (overall material)
steel (overall material)
overall: 4 in x 11 1/2 in x 1 in; 10.16 cm x 29.21 cm x 2.54 cm
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Native Americans
Expansion and Reform
See more items in
Political and Military History: Armed Forces History, Military
National Treasures exhibit
Price of Freedom
Exhibition Location
National Museum of American History
Data Source
National Museum of American History
Nominate this object for photography.   

Our collection database is a work in progress. We may update this record based on further research and review. Learn more about our approach to sharing our collection online.

If you would like to know how you can use content on this page, see the Smithsonian's Terms of Use. If you need to request an image for publication or other use, please visit Rights and Reproductions.


"This underhammer pistol is a copy of a similar pistol made by Fordyce and Adin Ruggles.. Hardwick,Msee. ca 1826....'see Early American Underhammer Firearms, published by Mowbray in 2010. I suspect that the Native American gunmaker was shown one of these early model Ruggles pistol and used it as a model to make his pistol. Ruggles pistols were sold in towns and cities along the Eastern seaboard in the 1820s and 1830s."

Note: Comment submission is temporarily unavailable while we make improvements to the site. We apologize for the interruption. If you have a question relating to the museum's collections, please first check our Collections FAQ. If you require a personal response, please use our Contact page.