Pamphlet, Understanding Testing Purposes and Interpretations for Pupil Development

Pamphlet, Understanding Testing Purposes and Interpretations for Pupil Development

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In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, practitioners of the relatively new discipline of psychology developed a variety of objects for use in testing the intellectual abilities, skills, and response times of individuals. Shortly before the outbreak of World War I, they began to use paper-and-pencil tests to evaluate such human characteristics as intelligence, manual dexterity, work skills, academic achievement, personality, and character. The new methodology was used by the U.S. Army during World War I to test the intelligence of recruits. After the war, it spread widely in American schools, offices, and industry.
Psychologist Samuel Kavruck (1915-2009) accumulated a collection of tests during his long career at the U.S. Civil Service Commission, the U.S. Office of Education, and George Washington University. Three of them involve physical manipulation of wooden puzzles, the others are paper-and-pencil. The materials date from 1916 to 1966, with the bulk from between 1920 and 1950. In addition to tests, the collection includes score sheets, test keys, manuals, and related publications.
Accession file.
“Samuel Kavruck GWU Professor,” Washington Post, March 16, 2009.
Currently not on view
Object Name
date made
McLaughlin, K. F.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare
Physical Description
paper (overall material)
overall:.1 cm x 20 cm x 26 cm; 1/32 in x 7 7/8 in x 10 1/4 in
ID Number
catalog number
accession number
Credit Line
Gift of Samuel Kavruck
Psychological Tests
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Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Data Source
National Museum of American History
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